Presentation on theme: "What are Seismic Waves?. Types of Waves Compression wave (longitudinal) Transverse Wave Seismic Wave – Body Waves Primary or p-wave Primary or p-wave."— Presentation transcript:
Types of Waves Compression wave (longitudinal) Transverse Wave Seismic Wave – Body Waves Primary or p-wave Primary or p-wave – Compression wave Secondary or s-wave Secondary or s-wave – Transverse wave – Surface Love wave Love wave Rayleigh wave Rayleigh wave
Seismic Wave Seismic waves are the waves of energy caused by the sudden breaking of rock within the earth or an explosion. They are the energy that travels through the earth and is recorded on seismographs. There are several different kinds of seismic waves, and they all move in different ways. The two main types of waves are – body waves – surface waves
How Seismographs Work The pendulum remains fixed as the ground moves beneath it.
Body Waves P Waves (compression wave) The first kind of body wave is the P wave or primary wave. This is the fastest kind of seismic wave. The P wave can move through solid rock and fluids, like water or the liquid layers of the earth. It pushes and pulls the rock it moves through just like sound waves push and pull the air.
Primary Waves (P Waves) A type of seismic wave that compresses and expands the ground The first wave to arrive at an earthquake
Stop and Think Have you ever heard a big clap of thunder and heard the windows rattle at the same time? The windows rattle because the sound waves were pushing and pulling on the window glass much like P waves push and pull on rock. Sometimes animals can hear the P waves of an earthquake. Usually we only feel the bump and rattle of these waves.
Body Waves S wave (transverse wave) The second type of body wave is the S wave or secondary wave, which is the second wave you feel in an earthquake. An S wave is slower than a P wave and can only move through solid rock. This wave moves rock up and down, or side-to-side.
Secondary Waves (S Waves) A type of seismic wave that moves the ground up and down or side to side
Surface Waves Move along the Earth’s surface Produces motion in the upper crust – Motion can be up and down – Motion can be around – Motion can be back and forth Travel more slowly than S and P waves More destructive Types: – Love – Rayleigh
Surface Waves Love Waves The first kind of surface wave is called a Love wave, named after A.E.H. Love, a British mathematician who worked out the mathematical model for this kind of wave in 1911. It's the fastest surface wave and moves the ground from side-to-side.
Surface Waves Rayleigh Waves The other kind of surface wave is the Rayleigh wave, named for John William Strutt, Lord Rayleigh, who mathematically predicted the existence of this kind of wave in 1885. A Rayleigh wave rolls along the ground just like a wave rolls across a lake or an ocean. Because it rolls, it moves the ground up and down, and side-to- side in the same direction that the wave is moving. Most of the shaking felt from an earthquake is due to the Rayleigh wave, which can be much larger than the other waves.
What is an earthquake? Used to describe both sudden slip on a fault, and the resulting ground shaking and radiated seismic energy caused by the slip Caused by volcanic or magmatic activity, Caused by other sudden stress changes in the earth.
What causes earthquakes? Tectonic plates move past each other causing stress. Stress causes the rock to deform
Focus – point inside the Earth where an earthquake begins Epicenter – point on Earth’s surface above focus
How do scientists calculate how far a location is from the epicenter of an earthquake? Scientists calculate the difference between arrival times of the P waves and S waves The further away an earthquake is, the greater the time between the arrival of the P waves and the S waves
How are Earthquakes Measured? Mercalli Intensity Scale Click Link for Interactive Demo http://elearning.niu.edu/simulations/images/S_portfolio/Mercalli/Mercalli_Scale.swf http://elearning.niu.edu/simulations/images/S_portfolio/Mercalli/Mercalli_Scale.swf
Now it is your turn!! Click on the following link: http://www.sciencecourseware.com/eec/Earthquake/EpicenterMagnitude/ Now start activity using handout at end of notes. You must use the following code – For 3 rd period use 2113714 – For 4 th period use 2113861 -For 6 th period use -2113947 Assignment due by Tues March 26 by end of class!