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Earthquakes Liz LaRosa 2009

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1 Earthquakes Liz LaRosa 2009
for my 5th grade science class 2009

2 What is an earthquake? Used to describe both sudden slip on a fault, and the resulting ground shaking and radiated seismic energy caused by the slip Caused by volcanic or magmatic activity, Caused by other sudden stress changes in the earth.

3 Three Types of Faults Strike-Slip Thrust Normal Three types of faults
Form depending on type of plate motion and complex reaction of earth’s lithospheric blocks Strike-slip Normal Thrust Normal

4 What causes earthquakes?
Tectonic plates move past each other causing stress. Stress causes the rock to deform Plastic deformation – does not cause earthquakes Elastic deformation – rock stretches then reaches a breaking point, releasing energy.

5 Elastic Rebound – deformed rock goes back to its original shape

6 Focus –. point inside the Earth where an
Focus – point inside the Earth where an earthquake begins Epicenter – point on Earth’s surface above focus

7 How Seismographs Work the pendulum remains fixed as the ground moves beneath it

8 Typical Seismogram

9 Primary Waves (P Waves)
A type of seismic wave that compresses and expands the ground The first wave to arrive at an earthquake

10 Secondary Waves (S Waves)
A type of seismic wave that moves the ground up and down or side to side

11 Comparing Seismic Waves

12 Surface Waves Move along the Earth’s surface
Produces motion in the upper crust Motion can be up and down Motion can be around Motion can be back and forth Travel more slowly than S and P waves More destructive

13 How do scientists calculate how far a location is from the epicenter of an earthquake?
Scientists calculate the difference between arrival times of the P waves and S waves The further away an earthquake is, the greater the time between the arrival of the P waves and the S waves

14 Locating Earthquakes

15 Locating Earthquakes

16 Locating Earthquakes

17 How are Earthquakes Measured? Richter Scale

18 How are Earthquakes Measured? Mercalli Intensity Scale
Click Link for Interactive Demo

19 Earthquake Waves & Earth’s Interior

20 Seismic Waves in the Earth

21 Tsunamis

22 Formation of a tsunami

23 Tsunami Warning System

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