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Supervising and Motivating Employees

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1 Supervising and Motivating Employees
6 Human Resources Management and Supervision OH 6-1

2 Chapter Learning Objectives
Describe the supervisor’s role. Tell what motivates employees. Identify the basis upon which employees should be trained, coached, rewarded, and disciplined. Summarize tactics to monitor employees and ensure standards. Identify elements in an effective employee recognition or incentive program. Instructor’s Notes Indicate that these objectives (competencies) drive the information in the chapter and in this session. Ask the following question, “What does a supervisor do?”

3 Supervising Employees
Instructor’s Notes After the orientation process is completed, staff members must be supervised, developed, trained, evaluated, and rewarded. These are among the activities that are part of a supervisor’s responsibility. Some operations make a distinction between “managers” and other “supervisors” who direct the work of hourly employees. All supervisors and most managers direct the work of staff members, and this topic is discussed in this session.

4 Challenges Confront New Supervisors
Tasks performed by supervisors are different from those done by hourly employees. The task of supervising people is different than performing technical tasks. Supervisors help new employees when necessary, so they must know how to do the work of the staff they lead. Instructor’s Notes Some supervisors lose their sense of accomplishment when they are not doing “physical” work. A supervisor sets and monitors quality, productivity, and efficiency standards. A talented supervisor is able to build effective relationships with employees.

5 Making the Transition to Supervisor
This is the server’s last shift as a server. Tomorrow he will begin work as a dining supervisor and will find that work tasks and responsibilities are very different. Instructor’s Notes Note that the relationship an hourly staff member has with his/her peers is much different than the relationship that a supervisor has with those whom he/she leads.

6 Building and Managing Employee Relationships
Good supervisors can adjust from being a group member to a group leader. Decisions must be made that are best for the operation, its customers, and its employees. Effective supervisors are clear and careful about what they say (and don’t say), and are honest and fair. Instructor’s Notes Supervisors must make the right decisions for the right reasons and stand by them; they cannot be influenced by past relationships with their employee peers. It is critical to maintain good relationships with all employees—not just those with whom one was friendly before a supervisory promotion. A supervisor’s integrity (honesty) is critical to the supervisor-employee relationship. Good supervisors consider the potential effects of their actions before they act. Ask the following question, “What motivates employees?”

7 What Motivates Employees
A supervisor cannot motivate anyone; motivation must come from within each person. Good supervisors create conditions that allow employees to be motivated. While every person is different, there are some factors that typically do (and do not) motivate people. Instructor’s Notes Every person (and employee) is different. A supervisor should make efforts to get to know individual employees to determine what motivates them as individuals. Indicate that there are two commonly-accepted motivation theories, and these will be discussed next.

8 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Instructor’s Notes Physiological needs relate to the body, such as the need for food, water, air, or sleep. At work these needs can be met by comfortable heating, air-conditioning, lighting, meal and rest breaks, and limits on work hours. Safety needs deal with things that make people feel secure and keep them safe. In the workplace, these include fair wages, healthcare and other benefits, safety procedures, and protective equipment. Social needs involves a person’s need to be with others and include love, belonging, and friendship. In the workplace, these needs can be met through friendship, teamwork, and a sense of belonging or acceptance. Esteem (ego) needs focus on how people feel about themselves, and how they perceive others feel about them. In the workplace, these needs may be met through recognition, promotions, job titles, acknowledgements, and other factors. Self-actualization needs relate to the realization that one is doing the best that it is possible to do. In the workplace, this need can motivate people to become as productive as they can be, to produce the best quality work outputs, and to develop themselves for other positions.

9 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs continued
As soon as a lower need is fulfilled, a person is typically motivated to fulfill the next higher need. Needs vary for each individual. Needs change; what motivates a person at one time may not motivate him/her at another time. Instructor’s Notes While most people have some needs in common, what will satisfy one person’s need may not satisfy another person with the same need. For example, lack of health insurance may make one person with a security need feel insecure, but this may not bother another person with a security need. Indicate that a second common motivation theory is the motivation-hygiene (two-factor) theory.

10 Motivation-Hygiene (Two-Factor) Theory
Many people assume that factors that motivate employees and that demotivate them are opposites. The two-factor theory identifies different factors that motivate and demotivate employees. Instructor’s Notes According to the two-factor theory, employees are motivated by motivation factors and demotivated by hygiene factors.

11 Two-Factor Theory— Motivation Factors
Esteem Accomplishment Contribution Responsibility Acknowledgement Recognition Growth Instructor’s Notes Motivation factors encourage employees to work harder, to go beyond the ordinary, and to make a difference in the workplace. Since these factors make employees feel happy about their workplace, they are sometimes called satisfiers. Indicate that hygiene factors are work situations that can make employees unhappy and prevent them from doing a good job.

12 Two-Factor Theory—Hygiene Factors
Working conditions Company policies Hours Equipment Fair pay Health benefits Time off Working relationships Supervisory style Instructor’s Notes Hygiene factors can maintain employee satisfaction or make them unhappy, but they cannot motivate employees to do better work. The absence of a hygiene factor can cause dissatisfaction. Improving hygiene factors benefits the operation; for example, it shows employees that the managers care, helps to prevent poor morale and turnover, and models the respectful and caring behavior that is important in the work environment. Hygiene factors provide a foundation for the workplace, and they enable employees to be motivated by factors that are of concern to them.

13 Effective Supervisors Plan for Success
They have a clear vision of the desired workplace and how to get there. They are able to plan and organize the work of teams. They are able to consider the need for future improvements. Instructor’s Notes Effective supervisors incorporate their plans into visions and communicate them to employees. Part of this communication is indirect and includes serving as a good role model who practices the desired attitudes and behavior. Supervisors should also use more direct methods to communicate with employees.

14 How Do Supervisors Communicate?
In shift meetings During production meetings With employee bulletin boards By management group meetings Instructor’s Notes Effective supervisors discuss plans and how they may be accomplished with staff assistance. They also tell employees what they (employees) are doing well and where improvement is needed. Effectively communicating with staff members can motivate staff to be concerned about and participate in the supervisor’s plans. Indicate that effective supervisors monitor employees to help ensure that standards are met.

15 Supervisors Must Reinforce Positive Performance
Provide feedback. Recognize and complement successful performance. Encourage continued on-job success. Instructor’s Notes Employees who follow policies and meet or exceed standards should be complimented or rewarded for doing so. Examples of rewards include preferred work schedules, transfers, cross training, educational opportunities, new assignments, bonuses, promotions, and raises. Feedback to improve employee performance should be done following several basic principles: Provide feedback in a timely manner with specific suggestions about what to do differently. Maintain a professional and positive attitude. When improvements are noted, compliment the employee as soon as possible, and encourage continued improvement. Ask students to answer several questions.

16 How Would You Answer the Following Questions?
According to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory, _______ needs are the most basic. According to the Two-Factor Motivation Theory, _______ factors can make employees unhappy and prevent them from doing a good job. Employee development is only one way to improve employee performance. (True/False) The only way to reinforce positive performance is to become angry and threaten the offending employee. (True/False) Instructor’s Notes Physiological Hygiene (also called maintenance factors or dissatisfiers) True False Indicate that the next part of this session will address principles for disciplining employees.

17 Progressive Discipline
Employee is encouraged and reminded about proper performance. The employee is given notice about below- standard behaviors with a reminder to improve. Written feedback is provided. More serious consequences that eventually end in termination are used for repeated problems. Instructor’s Notes When a performance problem is first noted, help should be provided by front-line supervisors and peers. To prevent wrongful termination that occurs when employees are fired for arbitrary, unproven, or disciplined discriminatory reasons, some states require an employer to have a legitimate cause for termination. Even in states that adhere to the employment at will doctrine, good supervisors use progressive discipline. Indicate that supervisors can use some basic tactics to motivate employees everyday.

18 Motivating Employees Everyday
Acknowledge them. Express appreciation. Share information. Express interest. Involve them. Instructor’s Notes Point out that the bullets at the top of page 135 in the guide should also include “involving employees.” Indicate that you will use the next slides to discuss some ideas for each of these tactics.

19 Acknowledge Employees
Say “hello.” Call people by name. Make eye contact. Greet each employee at the start of each shift. Say “goodbye” at the end of each shift. Instructor’s Notes Suggest that two basic methods can be used to express appreciation to your employees.

20 Express Appreciation Extend your thanks by inserting a positive note in the employee’s file. Publicly express your appreciation or that of a guest. Instructor’s Notes An informal tactic that every employee appreciates is a simple and honest “thank you.” When a guest writes a complimentary letter that mentions an employee’s name, post it or read it aloud. Indicate that sharing information with staff can be done several ways.

21 Sharing Information Keep employees informed.
Explain why changes are needed. Ask for employees’ help in solving problems. Instructor’s Notes It is natural for people to want to know what is going on in their operation. Employees who are informed can provide more assistance in problem solving challenges. Indicate that expressing interest in the employees is another way to provide daily motivation.

22 Expressing Interest Expressing interest shows that you care about employees as individuals and as staff members. When you ask a question, listen to the answer, and show you are interested. Instructor’s Notes Do not get too personal in your questions. (There may be a fine line between harmless interest about employees, and employee concerns about harassment, discrimination, or “nosiness.”) Indicate that involving employees is another daily motivation tactic.

23 Employee Involvement Recognizes employees as valuable individuals and team members. Provides opportunities for responsibility, contribution, creativity, and growth. Shows the manager’s commitment to the team and to teamwork. Yields better plans and decisions. Instructor’s Notes Ways to involve employees range from informal discussions to formal committees, projects, and programs. Do not criticize employee suggestions because they will stop sharing ideas. If applicable, ask students to review Exhibit 6h (page 138 in the chapter) to note examples of areas in which employees can become involved. Indicate that formal employee recognition or incentive programs can motivate employees.

24 Creating Recognition and Incentive Programs
Incentive programs encourage employees to meet goals by offering a reward. Goals must be high but realistic. Employees must know the rules, and how they will be measured. Participants’ progress must be easy to measure. Programs should not be too lengthy. Regular communication is important. Rewards must reflect the employees’ efforts. Instructor’s Notes Program parameters should be clearly defined, including how success will be measured, who is eligible to participate, how information will be tracked, and how long the program will last. Point out that poorly designed recognition and incentive programs in which one employee “wins” and the rest of the employees “lose” do little to establish and maintain the teamwork required for successful operations. To sustain employees’ motivation, they should be kept informed about their progress and that of their competitors. When incentive programs are planned, they must be announced. This can be done during an employee meeting, and information can be posted or distributed in writing. Measurable results of the program help to evaluate its effectiveness. Indicate that there are several types of incentive programs.

25 Examples of Incentive Programs
Service awards Sales and productivity awards Customer satisfaction awards Safety awards Longevity and perseverance awards Instructor’s Notes An employee-of-the-month (or quarter or year) program is an example of a service award. Sales and productivity awards can be designed to increase sales, to decrease food costs, or to improve safety records. Customer satisfaction awards may be given on the basis of results of mystery shopper reports. Be sure that students understand that mystery shoppers are people who visit restaurants for pre-approved visits posing as guests, and who evaluate the operation’s service, products, and environment. Safety awards can be given to employees who make improvements in safety records or suggestions about how to improve the operation’s overall safety. Longevity awards are given to employees who are employed by the operation for a significant time.

26 How Would You Answer the Following Questions?
Progressive discipline programs should not be used in states that adhere to “employment at will” laws. (True/False) Sharing information with employees is a first step in asking their help in solving a problem. (True/False) Incentive programs must be short to be effective. (True/False) Guests’ responses about service quality are typically provided only if they are very happy or unhappy. (True/False) Instructor’s Notes False True Note: indicate that the last part of this discussion will provide a review of definitions for the key terms used in the chapter.

27 Key Term Review Coaching Dissatisfiers Ego needs Employment at will
Esteem needs Hygiene factors Incentive program Instructor’s Notes Coaching—formal program in which an employee is matched with an experienced employee or supervisor who helps the employee achieve career goals or increase skills and knowledge. Coaching can also be an informal activity that involves observing an employee’s behavior and then providing feedback on ways to improve performance. Dissatisfiers—same as hygiene factors or maintenance factors in the two-factor motivation theory Ego needs—needs that focus on how people feel about themselves, and how they perceive others feel about them; also called esteem needs in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory Employment at will—doctrine followed in some states in which employers can fire employees for any reason, and employees can resign from the organization for any reason. Note: This definition expands upon that noted on page 133. Esteem needs—same as ego needs in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory Hygiene factors—work situations that can make employees unhappy and prevent them from doing a good job Incentive program—program that is designed to encourage employees to meet specific goals by offering some kind of reward Indicate that there were additional key terms reviewed in the chapter.

28 Key Term Review continued
Maintenance factors Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Motivation factors Motivation-hygiene theory Mystery shoppers Physiological needs Primary needs Progressive discipline Instructor’s Notes Maintenance factors—same as hygiene factors or dissatisfiers in the two-factor motivation theory Maslow's hierarchy of needs—theory of motivation that suggests human beings have five basic needs that arise or evolve in a specific hierarchy or order Motivation factors—according to the two-factor theory, motivation factors include opportunities for esteem, accomplishment, contribution, responsibility, acknowledgement, recognition, and growth Motivation-hygiene theory—same as two-factor motivation theory Mystery shoppers—people who visit restaurants for pre-approved visits posing as guests, and who evaluate the operation’s service, products and environment. Note: This definition is an enhancement of the definition on page 144. Physiological needs—according to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, these needs relate to the body, such as the need for food, water, air, or sleep. Primary needs—according to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, these needs refer to one’s social, safety, and physiological needs. Progressive discipline—model of discipline in which the employee has adequate warning and support to improve his or her behavior and performance Indicate that there were several final key terms defined in this chapter.

29 Key Term Review continued
Role model Safety needs Satisfiers Self-actualization Social needs Two-factor theory Wrongful termination Instructor’s Notes Role model—concept that a supervisor’s behavior sets an example that employees will imitate Safety needs—according to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, safety needs deal with those things that make a person feel secure or keep them safe Satisfiers—according to the two-factor motivation theory, these are the same as motivation factors Self-actualization—according to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, self-actualization relates to the realization of one’s own potential Social needs—according to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, social needs involve the needs of people to be with others Two-factor theory—motivation theory that identifies sets of factors that can motivate and demotivate employees; also called motivation-hygiene theory Wrongful termination—act of firing employees for arbitrary, unproven, or discriminatory reasons

30 Chapter Learning Objectives— What Did You Learn?
Describe the supervisor’s role. Tell what motivates employees. Identify the basis upon which employees should be trained, coached, rewarded, and disciplined. Summarize tactics to monitor employees and ensure standards. Identify elements in a effective employee recognition or incentive program. Instructor’s Notes Ask students to do a personal assessment of the extent to which they know the information or can perform the activity noted in each objective.

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