Presentation on theme: " Running are a method of recording a student’s reading behavior. Running Records provide teachers with information that can be analyzed to determine."— Presentation transcript:
Running are a method of recording a student’s reading behavior. Running Records provide teachers with information that can be analyzed to determine the strengths and needs of an individual student. Since a prepared script is unnecessary, Running Records can be taken at any time on any reading material.
Place Students in Instructional “Reading Materials – scores: If a student reads with 90 – 94% accuracy, they are correctly placed. If a student with 95 – 100%, the reading material is too easy and additional testing on higher level material is needed to assure proper placement in instructional material. If a student isn’t placed instructionally, they have little opportunity to learn to use reading strategies. Monitoring Progress - Teachers can identify print concepts, reading cues and strategies used successfully by the student. Running Records are used to ensure that students continue to read at their instructional level. The teacher can then analyze reading behaviors to discover strengths and pinpoint needs. Designing Reading Lessons - Data from running records should be used to assist teachers when determining the focus for instruction in reading lessons.
Running Records are a way of observing and recording reading behaviors. Teachers can use information form Running Records to: 1. Identify what students can do with text. 2. Evaluate the difficulty of texts that students are reading. 3. Identify when students need to be accelerated to the next reading level. 4. Monitor progress of students. 5. Show particular difficulties of students. 6. Help plan day-today instruction. 7. Provide reliable documentation of long-term progress. 8. Determine whether students are reading at an independent, instructional, or frustration level. 9. Running Records provide valuable insight into: Strengths (on easier materials Weaknesses (on the more difficult material)
The boy ran home. Accurate Reading: The boy ran home. Substitution: The boy went home Omission: The boy ran. Insertion: The little boy ran home. Repeat: The boy ran home. The boy ran home. The boy The boy ran home. Told: make with a T Appeals: make with an A
Error Rate: Divide the number of running record words by the number of errors. RW/E = 100/10 to calculate error rate. The ratio would be 1:10 or one error for every ten words the student read. Accuracy Rate: Use the error ration of 1:10 and the conversion table to find the accuracy rate of 90% or subtract errors from the running record words to find the number of correctly read words. Then divide the running record words into the correct read words. 100 – 10 = 90 90/100 = 90% Self-Correction Rate: Add the number of errors and the number of self-corrections. Then divide by the number of self-corrections. E+SC/SC = 10 + 5/5 The ration would be 1:3 or one self correction for each three errors the student made.
Young children need to have certain basic concepts/abilities in order to learn to read: Concept that print carries the message Ability to attend visually to the print and the distinctive features of printed text Basic concepts about the conventions of the English language. In order to read, the reader used information in the printed text to help determine the author’s intended message. It is understood that reading is an interactive process in which the reader also comprehends the text. Marie Clay developed Running Record to record the reader’s behavior and analyze the substitutions and self-corrections made while reading. Meaning, Structure, and Visual (M S V) cues are the basis for this important analysis. Cues are defined as sources of information in the text When analyzing errors and self-corrections, take into account the text up to and including the error.
Meaning (Semantic) Structure (Syntactic) Visual (Graphophonic) Comprehension Story Sense Prior Knowledge Text Illustrations Sound and Symbols Analogies Print Conventions Directionality Word/Spaces Letters Beginning/Endings Punctuation Natural Language Grammar & Language Structure Knowledge of English
Meaning Cues What’s happening in the story? Semantics Intended message almost the same Picture used Take into account only text up to and including error Does it make sense? Structure Cues Syntax Not visually similar A possible English sentence Take into account only text up to and including error Does it sound right? Visual Cues Graphophonic Letter and words that look alike High Visual similarity Take into account only text up to and including error Does it look right? Self-Correct Determine cues used to make error Determine possible cues used to self-correct
Look at each error. Ask yourself: “What made the child say that particular word instead of the one in the text?” Did the child use MEANING cues (M) Ask yourself: “Does that substitution make sense?” Did the child use STRUCTURAL cues? (S) Ask yourself: “Can we say it that way in English?” Did the child use VISUAL cues? (V) Ask yourself: “Did the child see something in the print that led her to say that word?” Analysis of Self Corrections – For errors tha were self corrected there is a further step. After asking the 3 error questions, ask yourself: “What led the child to correct the original error?” or What else did the child use to notice there was an error and to fix it up?”
Children need to learn to: SEARCH the text and pictures for clues to meaning and to PREDICT what the text is about. SELF MONITOR to make sure what is being read makes sense, and SELF CORRECT if meaning is lost. CROSS CHECK that what is read matches exactly what is on the page. CONFIRM that everything is coming together in a meaningful way
The teacher examines the running record for evidence of what the child did at the point of difficulty. Did the child stop at an unknown word and make no attempt? Did the child appeal for help? Did the child reread to gather information? Did the child articulate the first letter of the problem word? Was the child using meaning, structure, visual information or some combination?
Strategies are cognitive actions initiated by the reader to construct meaning from the text. We cannot observe strategies, but we can collect evidence of reading behavior that indicates a child is engaging in mental problem- solving. We know that effective readers: predict upcoming events use pictures to support meaning anticipate language structure make links to their personal knowledge monitor by rereading cross-check one source of information against another (meaning, structure, and visual information) search to extract further information self correct read fluently problem solve flexibly
To examine strategies use, the teacher can analyze running records and look closely at cues that were used or ignored by the reader. The teacher must determine if the child employed a strategy to help her actively make predictions and confirm or reject the predictions based on other information.
Clay, M.M. (1993). An Observation Survey. Portsmouth, NH: Heineman Clay, M.M. (2000) Running Records for Classroom Teachers. Portsmouth, NH: Heineman