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Using Running Records to Inform Instruction

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1 Using Running Records to Inform Instruction

2 Today you will learn… What is a Running Record
How to score a running record Cueing System: Meaning, Structure, Visual cues How to analyze miscues Using running records to plan instruction Prompts to help students become strategic readers Effective ways to incorporate running records into a balanced literacy program using Trophies and leveled readers


4 What is Reading? “Reading is a meaning-based process, with readers bringing what they know and believe to what is presented in the text, and through that interaction creating an understanding.” Pennsylvania Literacy Framework

5 NP Language Arts Philosophy
NORTH PENN SCHOOL DISTRICT LANGUAGE ARTS PHILOSOPHY Research in the field of literacy indicates that reading, writing, listening, viewing, and speaking are interrelated skills used as the foundation for acquiring knowledge and communicating effectively. These skills empower students to explore the value of language and to develop their own unique voice. Students who have successfully engaged in learning the language arts will be informed, responsible and productive community members ready to assume a purposeful role in society. The North Penn School District believes… Students develop thinking skills through the language arts - reading, writing, listening, viewing, and speaking. Students use background knowledge, experiences, skills, and strategies to interact with text and construct meaning. Students grow personally, socially, and intellectually while learning the language arts. Student experience with the process of learning to read varies with each child, since this process is developmental. Students need to experience both traditional academic purposes and real world applications while exploring the language arts. Students achieve success in the language arts in a climate which partners school, family, and community. Students develop a lifelong appreciation and enjoyment of learning through the language arts. Source: Reading/Language Arts Curriculum Review Committee May 18, 2005

6 Three Cueing System Meaning, Structure, Visual
Young children need the following abilities to learn to read: The concept that print carries meaning The ability to attend visually to the print and the distinctive features of printed text Basic concepts of print (directionality, spacing, letters, words, etc.) Special features of sound

7 Readers Integrate Meaning, Structure, and Visual Cues
Reading is an interactive process in which the reader uses information in the text (visual), and applies his/her knowledge of the world (meaning), and knowledge of the language (structure), to help determine author’s intended message.

8 Relationship of the Three Cueing Systems of Reading
STRUCTURE Syntactic Cues What sounds right grammatically? MEANING Semantic Cues What makes sense in context? VISUAL Grapho-phonic Cues What looks right visually and sounds right phonetically?

9 Cross-Checking Cues To Confirm a Response
Meaning Does this make sense? Visual Does this look right? Structure Can we say it that way? Letter/ Sounds Expected What would you expect to see?

10 Put a grabber here

11 Cross Checking Example
TEXT: Yesterday, I walked the dog. Child: Yesterday, I was the dog. ( Meaning: Does that make sense?) (Letter/sounds expected: What would you expect to see?) Child: Yesterday, I saw the dog. (Visual – Does that look right?) Child: Yesterday, I walk the dog. ( Structure: Does it sound right?)


13 The Three Cues and Decoding
Any one area cannot exist in isolation from the others if meaning is to be emphasized. The interaction of the three cueing systems may occur so quickly as to appear simultaneous. Effective readers use the three cues interdependently. Ineffective readers tend to rely too heavily upon grapho-phonic cues. The objective of the teacher should be to encourage all children to integrate the three cueing systems. R. Routmann, Transitions

14 Purposes of Running Records A Running Record Provides:
Diagnostic information about how the reader is processing print An indication of what a reader knows and can do An accurate and objective description of what actually occurs during the course of reading A record of change over time through qualitative and quantitative information Insights to help guide future instruction Information to make informed decisions concerning instructional needs, grouping, reading levels, and appropriate level of materials Information for other teachers, administrators, parents, etc.

15 Running Record Procedure
1. Choose a book or text. Do not have the child read the text prior to the running record ( “cold read”). 2. Book Introduction Read the title and talk about the cover Provide a general idea of the content of the text Have child do a “picture walk” through the book to set the stage for reading. Watch how the child uses this strategy independently to help her/himself read. 3. Child reads unknown text Why unknown text? Using an unknown text reveals the child’s ability to make meaning of new text and use that meaning to help integrate strategies independently when encountering difficult text. 4. Teacher records all miscues 5. After reading, the teacher analyzes the running record making inferences as to the child’s use of cues.

16 Conventions Accurate Reading √ √ √ Substitution* went (child)
want (text) Repetition R or √ √ R Self-Correction (SC) went SC want

17 Conventions Omission* very Insertion* little Told ( T)* thought T
Appeal sometimes A Try That Again ( TTA) ( TTA)

18 Running Record Scoring Guidelines
Substitution Count as 1 error Multiple attempts at a word Count as 1 error Omission Count as 1 error Insertion Count as 1 error Tolds Count as 1 error Repeated error on a name Count as 1 error Repetitions Not counted as error Self-corrections Not counted as error

19 To Determine Accuracy Rate
Subtract the number of errors from number of running words( all words in text except title) Divide the remainder by the number of running words. Round to nearest whole number. Example: 71(Running words) – 5(errors)= 66 ; divide 66 by 71(Running words) Multiply by 100 = 93% Independent = 95% or above Instructional = 90=94 % Difficult = 89% or below

20 Analyzing the Running Record
MEANING CUE - Substitutions ponies Text: I like to see horses at the farm. Analysis: There were pictures of horses and colts on the page. The intended message is almost the same. The substitution is not visually similar, but it is an acceptable language structure (noun). There is often an overlap of meaning and structural cues. Teacher prompt: Does that look right?

21 Analyzing the Running Record
VISUAL CUE – Substitution The visual cues in text are simply what the letters and words look like. Does this substitution look like the word in the text? √ √ √ √ heres √ √ √ Text: I like to see horses at the farm. Analysis: The substitution looks similar. It is not an acceptable English sentence. It does not make sense. There is no concern for meaning. Teacher prompt: Does that sound right?

22 Analyzing the Running Record
STRUCTURE CUE The structure of the text (up to and including the substitution) should be acceptable English language construction. Does it sound right to say it this way? √ √ √ fly √ √ √ √ Text: I like to see horses at the farm. Analysis: “ I like to fly…” is acceptable English language construction. It is not visually similar. It does not fit the meaning of the total text. Teacher prompt: Does that make sense?

23 Analyzing the Running Record
SELF-CORRECTION In analyzing a running record it is also important to determine what cues were being used when a self-correction was made. √ √ √ √ √ √ √ fair SC Text: I like to see horses at the farm. Analysis: What cues do you think this child used to self-correct?

24 Let’s Watch a Child Read
Use the handout to identify the errors noted when viewing the first child read a sample from Angry Old Woman. Move clock to 30:00- 33:35 – example of Kindergarten

25 Now It’s Your Turn… While viewing this video, use the text to mark the miscues of the child reading Houses. After viewing TURN and TALK to your neighbor. What did you learn about the child? Report out to the group. D:\VIDEO_TS Turn clock to 25:49- 29:45 or 33:35 – 37;17 ( louder)

26 Resources For You To Use
Teacher Prompts Questions to Help Guide the Analysis of Running Records Conventions Scoring Guidelines Retelling forms Reading Errors practice sheet Teaching for Strategies

27 Points to Remember Authentic assessment should result in improved, more effective teaching Readers must use meaning, structure, and visual cues and must learn to self-check. Independent readers integrate all three strategies. Analyzing a student’s errors helps a teacher give the student the support needed. Comprehension can be checked by retellings and reader response. Students with similar needs can work in a flex group. Using running records to help place your students in guided reading groups and to inform your instruction

28 Bibliography Guided Reading: Good First Teaching for all Children, Gay Su Pinnell and Irene Fountas Observation Survey, Marie Clay Becoming Literate, Marie Clay Reading Recovery: A Guidebook for Teachers in Training, Marie Clay Classrooms That Work: They Can All Read and Write, PM Cunningham and R. Allington Early Childhood Assessment Framework, Pennsylvania Department of Education

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