2 What Are Running Records? Written record of reading behaviorsAssessment for analyzing students’ strengths and needsAssessment of reading levelGuide to choosing appropriate reading materialAssessment to determine focus of instructionAssessment for monitoring student progress
3 Why Do We Take Running Records? To show how students process printAppropriateness of textGrouping StudentsMonitoring progressDetermines lesson focusProvides long-term documentationFocus on strategies used
4 Steps to Take Reading and Record Taking Calculate error, accuracy, and self-correction rateAnalyze the running record for cues usedIdentify appropriate teaching focus
5 Step 1 Reading and Record Taking on Seen Text Text -the book introduced/read the previous dayTake the running recordYou can use a blank sheet of paper or formStudent reads:Independently and unpromptedRecord text lines as printed in book**This running record will be used for teaching and planning instruction
6 Reading and Record Taking on Unseen Text (ex. Dominie) Select TextShort BlurbTake the running recordStudent reads:Independently and unpromptedRecord text lines as printed in book** This running record will be used for assessment purposes
7 Step 2 Calculate error, accuracy, and self-correction rate. Score the following:Error Rate:Running words = Error rateErrorsSelf-Correction Ratio:Errors+ Self-corrections = SC RatioSelf-Corrections**Good SC rates are: 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1;5
8 Step 3 Running Record Analysis: A Search for sources of information used by readers: Why Running records?Marie Clay (1993) developed running records as a useful, daily, and more reliable measure of how well children read printed text. Clay felt teachers could use these records to guide them in their decisions about any of the following:evaluation of text difficultygrouping childrenacceleration of a childmonitoring progress of childrenallowing different children to move through differentbooks at different speeds while keeping track andrecords of individual progressobserving particular difficulties in particular children
9 Cont.In order to accomplish the goals listed , the teacher must analyze running records to determine the child’s reading behavior. By analyzing substitutions and self-corrections made while reading, the teacher can determine the sources of information used and the reading strategies the child has under control.
10 Sources of Information in text Printed text contains three sources of information which the reader used to determine the author’s message. In addition, the reader brings background information and a level of understanding of language to interact with these cues, The sources of information in text are often called the three reading cue systems. The teacher’s analysis of the child’s use of meaning, structure, and visual cues is an important part of the running record analysis. They analyze the running record by asking themselves, ”up to the point of this error or substitution, what cue was the child using?” When a child self-corrects, they also ask themselves, ”what source of information did the child consider to assist him in correcting the substitution?”Go through this page slowly with your teachers- take the time to explain it.
11 Step 4 Identify Appropriate Teaching Focus- strategies, not skills Plan instruction based on student strengths and needsSelect new reading material at instructional/independent levelYou may want to see if they know the difference between strategies and skills- this is very hard for teachers
12 Tallying Errors and Self-Corrections 1. Total each line separately going across the line of text.2. An uncorrected substitution, omission, or insertion counts as one error.3. Unsuccessful multiple attempts on one word count as only one errorhouse here herhome4. An error on a proper noun is counted only on the first error. Subsequent errors on that proper noun are coded but not tallied.5. If a word is mispronounced due to a speech problem or dialect, it is coded but is not an error.6. Repetitions are coded but are not errors.7. Waits are coded but are not errors.8. Sounding the first letter is coded but does not count as an error if the word is subsequently read correctly.9. TTA- Try That Again= 1 error10. Told= 1 error11. Contractions count as one error12. Each insertion counts as one error13. Skipped line- each word counts as an error14. If a child invents text, just write inventing at the bottom of thepage unless he invented on one line, then count each error15. The only time the teacher can say anything is when the childsays something like, “I don’t know this word.” If that happens,code an A on the top line and say ,”Try it.”
13 Reading Cue SystemsPoint out to them that using the 3 cue systems are like a juggler- even a fisherman. It’s often easy for him to catch fish by having his bait on the surface, but sometimes he has to go deeper into the water.
14 What Are Meaning Cues? Does it make sense? Prior Knowledge Story Sense IllustrationsDid the child’s attempt make sense up to the point of error? The teacher might think about the story background, information from the picture, and meaning in the sentence in deciding whether the child was using meaning as a source.Ex.Child: “Stop”, said the mail man, but the truck went on.Text: “Stop,” said the mail carrier, but the truck went on.
15 What Are Structure Cues Does it sound right?Natural LanguageKnowledge of EnglishGrammatical patterns and languagestructuresStructure refers to the way language works. It is often referred to as a syntax. It is the unconscious knowledge of the rules of grammar of the language the reader speaks. This helps as he eliminates alternatives. Using this knowledge, the reader checks whether the sentence “sounds right.”Ex.Child: “Stop,” said the girl, and the truck went on.Text: “Stop,” said the girl, but the truck went on.
16 What Are Visual Cues? Does it look right? Sounds and symbols Analogies Print conventionsdirectionalitywords/spaceslettersbeginnings/endingspunctuationVisual information refers to the way the letters and words look. IF the letters in the child’s attempt are visually similar to the letters in the word in the text, it is likely that the reader has used visual information. Analyzing the reader’s visual attention to words can be difficult. The child may only be looking at the beginning sound He may be only looking at the end. Just knowing that the child is using some visual information in reading isn’t enough. The teacher must attend to the types of visual information the child is picking up.Ex.Child: The boat was in the pool.Text: The boat was in the pond.
17 What Are Self-Corrections? When strategic readers monitor their reading, they often notice that a substitution does not conform to all cues in text. They notice the discrepancy, go back and sample other sources of information (cues), and correct their error. Self-corrections require the readers to search for and use other cue sources, making sure they are interpreting the author’s message.It’s important for a teacher to understand which cues a child used to make an error as well as the cues used to correct the error.
18 Strategic Behaviors to look for… Rereads to search for informationTakes the word apart to figure it outTries multiple strategiesRereads to make senseKeeps reading after attempting unknown word“Hears” mistakes that don’t sound right or make senseTakes actions to fix errorsCross-checks for beginning visualPuts words together in meaningful phrasesPredicts an unknown word using meaningSearches pictures or letters in words to make meaningful guessesThis is not a complete list by any means, so ask teachers if they have some to add
19 Recording NoticingsTurn and TalkHow will you record what you notice regarding a child’s use of strategic behaviors?
20 Now… Let’s Practice taking and analyzing a running record Hand out conventions sheet