Presentation on theme: "Objectives Analyze the impact of geography on the success of the empire of Ancient China Identify the three main dynasties of Ancient China Cite and explain."— Presentation transcript:
Objectives Analyze the impact of geography on the success of the empire of Ancient China Identify the three main dynasties of Ancient China Cite and explain each of the key advancements of the three main dynasties of Ancient China
The Geography of China Monsoons impact the climate Isolated from other cultures by: –Gobi Desert in the North –The Himalayan Mountains to the West and South –Bodies of water to the East: Yellow Sea, South China Sea, Pacific Ocean Known as the “Middle kingdom” –believed they were in the middle of the world, surrounded by natural barriers on all sides
Geography of China Yangtze River is the longest river in Asia and third longest in the world Huang or Yellow River is the second longest river in China –Loess – sedimentary soil that is formed by the accumulation of wind-blown silt (creates yellow- brown soil) –China’s Sorrow – River brought life, but also destructive floods To control flooding, the Chinese built dikes (protective walls to hold back water)
The Dynasties of Ancient China 13 dynastic periods, Spanning 4,000 years Mandate of Heaven: a traditional Chinese philosophical concept concerning the legitimacy of rulers –Similar to “divine right of kings” –Heaven would bless the authority of a just rule
The First Dynasties The Shang Dynasty –built China’s first cities –Irrigation and farming –Known for their bronze work –Developed the first Chinese writing system Oracle Bones –Created a social pyramid
The Qin (Ch’in) Dynasty Prior to the Qin Dynasty, China had broken into 7 warring kingdoms Shi Huangdi merged the kingdoms to unify China, and was the first true emperor –To protect China from nomadic invaders along the northern border, he ordered the construction of the Great Wall of China, but did not complete the project. –Abided by the philosophy of Legalism People are evil at their core, and the state is more important than the individual –Created a “Terra Cotta Army” at his burial necropolis
Legalism 法家 Legalism is based on three principles: 1.Fa 法 - The law code must be clearly written and made public. 2.Shu 術 - Special tactics and "secrets" are to be employed by the ruler to make sure others don't take over control of the state. 3.Shi 勢 - It is the position of the ruler, not the ruler himself or herself, that holds the power.
Qin Shi Huang Di's Mausoleum Mound. This is the stairway up the mound. The Terracotta Warriors and Horses Museum is about 1 mile from here.
Han Dynasty Dynasty lasts 400 years Liu Pang – overthrew the Qin Dynasty and became emperor (202 BC) –Not a heavy-handed ruler (abandons Legalism for Confucianism) –Establishes imperial university Wu Ti – Liu Pang’s great grandson and Emperor –Ruled from age 15-65 as the “Warrior Emperor” –Expanded the empire –Created a public school system (for boys only) –Silk Road to the west
The Silk Road Connected Asia with the Mediterranean and European world, as well as parts of North Africa Extends 4,000 miles long In addition to silk, many other goods were traded, as well as various technologies, religions and philosophies
Tang Dynasty China’s Golden Age –Greatest age for Chinese poetry –Buddhism reaches its peak Also Taoism and Confucianism –Men granted equal allotments of land in exchange for taxes –Did not have to be a noble to hold a high position; government exams –Borders expand from Korea to central Asia (present day Afghanistan)
Tang Dynasty Kingdom eventually dissolves into 10 different kingdoms –Feuds within the government, assassination plots, etc. leave the empire vulnerable to invasion.