Published byLisa Chambers Modified over 8 years ago
Trading States and Kingdoms East and West Africa
Trade in the Sahara Salt would become a major trading commodity for human health and preservation of food By 100 A.D. farming villages in West Africa would begin to produce surplus. Surplus food would be traded with other villages for products. Trade networks would eventually develop linking the Savanna to rainforest regions with trade networks across the Sahara to the Mediterranean and Southwest Asia.
Trading Gold for Salt Gold and Salt would end up dominating the Sahara trade Gold was widely available in the area of present-day Ghana, Nigeria, and Senegal. It is estimated that between A.D. about 8 tons of gold were exported annually from West Africa.
Price of gold per troy ounce $1365.00
29, troy ounces in a ton
In exchange for gold the West Africans would trade salt.
In the savanna salt was scarce but was abundant in many parts of the Sahara With the prospering of this salt and gold exchange, cities emerged along the trade routes with monarchs and kingdoms emerging.
Ghana Ruler and Government
Founders were the Soninke people around 800 A.D. Ruled by princes and officials Not the same as present day Ghana. Is actually present day Mali
Reasons for Rise Rich in gold The kings controlled the gold and salt trade across West Africa Large army Traded gold, precious woods, and kola nuts. Muslim merchants brought their Muslim faith Rulers employed Muslim language, money, and business methods.
Reasons for Decline of Ghana
About 1050 A.D. the Almoravids from North Africa attacked Ghana. The Almoravids tried to maintain control of trade routes but were unsuccessful. Ghana would eventually come under the control of Mali.
Empire of Ghana
Mali Ruler and Government By 1235 A.D. Sundiata would control the West African gold trade to bring about the kingdom of Mali. Mansa Musa was a capable Muslim leader who expanded the empire from 1312 until he died in 1337. Reasons for Rise The mansas or rulers of Mali would expand their influence over the salt and gold trade.
Strong Mandingo leaders like Mansa Musa conquered neighboring lands.
Islam united the people. Mansa Musa would create diplomatic and economic ties with other Muslim countries through a hajj (pilgrimage) to Mecca. Timbuktu became a great city of Muslim learning and trade. Reasons for Decline Power struggles between weaker rulers in the early 1400’s.
Timbuktu University (Sankore Mosque)
Empire of Mali
Songhai Ruler and Government
Sunni Ali restored order in He did not convert to Islam but followed traditional beliefs. Askia Muhammad helped Songhai reach its peak of power by creating a Muslim dynasty. Askia Muhammad would take a pilgrimage to Mecca creating ties to the wider Muslim world.
Reasons for Rise Reasons for Decline
Developed along the fertile region of the Niger River in present day Mali and Niger. Sunni Ali captured Timbuktu and other centers of trade. Islam under Askia Muhammad. Reasons for Decline Fell in 1591 to invaders from Morocco who seized the gold and salt resources.
Benin Ruler and Government The rulers or kings were called Obas and established their kingdom in the 1300’s. The oba was political, judicial, and religious leader. Power was spread among other figures including the queen mother and a council of hereditary chiefs. Ewuare was an Oba who established a central government.
Reasons for Rise Arose in the rain forests of the Guinea coast. They built farming villages and traded pepper and ivory as well as slaves with their neighbors in the savanna. Ewuare captured towns and created a central government. Benin city was a center of industry. Known for the creation of bronze sculptures
City-states of East Africa
Ruler and Government City-state: Was a large town with its own government. Became trading centers. Reasons for Rise Cities like Malinda, Mombasa, Kilwa, and Sofala were major trading centers. Arab traders bought slaves and other goods.
Reasons for Decline of City-States
Were attacked and taken over by the Portuguese in the early 1500’s.
City-States of East Africa
Zimbabwe (Stone Houses)
Rulers and Government By 1300 A.D. power revolved around the control of gold mines. Rulers were probably god-kings presiding over large courts. Reasons for Rise Gold trade made the rulers wealthy.
The international trade led to the emergence of the Swahili culture-a blend of East African and Arabic cultures. Reasons for Decline Power struggles weakened the kingdom in the 1500’s. Dwindling trade
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