2 Crisis or turning point Dramatic StructureAct IIICrisis or turning pointAct IIRising Acting(Complications)Act IVFalling ActionAct IExpositionAct VClimax and resolution
3 Exposition: introduces conflicts and provides background information Rising Action – series of complications caused when main characters try to resolve their conflictsTurning point – main character makes a choice that determines the rest of the play’s actions
4 Falling Action – the results of the actions taken during the turning point Climax – an action that determines how the conflict will be resolved, moment of greatest tension (near the end of the play, usually the death of the tragic hero in a tragedy)Resolution: usually closely follows the climax and ties of loose ends in the plot (usually brief)
5 DialogueConversations of the characters on stage
6 AsideSpoken to the audience or to one character; the other characters on stage do not hear an aside
7 MonologueSpoken by one character to other characters onstage
8 SoliloquyA long speech by a character who is alone on stage that reveals the character’s innermost thoughts and feelings. This speech is not heard by other characters.Brutus in his orchard:It must be by his death. And for my partI know no personal cause to spurn himBut for the general. (II.i.10-12)
9 IronyThe contrast between appearance and reality, between expectation and fulfillment.What is ironic about Caesar’s confidence in his own unassailability?
10 Dramatic IronyWhen the audience knows something that a character does notAnthony says this to Caesar:Fear him [Cassius] not, Caesar, he’s not dangerous.He is a noble Roman, and well given(I.ii )
11 Verbal Irony When the words spoken are the opposite of what is meant Decius says to Caesar to get him to the Capitol:Pardon me, Caesar, for my dear dear loveTo your proceeding bids me tell you this,And reason to my love is liable.II.ivWhat is ironic about Anthony’s statement when he says,“Good friends, sweet friends, let menot stir you up/To such as suddenflow of mutiny”?
12 Foil A character who serves as a contrast to another character How is Cassius a foil to Brutus?(consider their motivations to kill Caesar)
13 TragedyA serious work of literature that narrates the events leading to the downfall of a tragic hero. It evokes fear and pity in the audience.Ends with the death of the tragic hero
14 Tragic heroA character who displays noble qualities but has a serious flaw.Classical Definition: When dying, he/she gains some awareness or self-knowledge usually accepting death and acknowledging that it is to some degree just.Who is the tragic hero in this play?
15 Tragic flawA defect in character or judgment in the tragic hero that directly causes the hero’s downfall (usually death)Examples: pride, rebelliousness, jealousyWhat is Brutus’ tragic flaw?
16 Iambic Pentameter “The Art of the Poet” 10-syllable lines of rhymed, unstressed/stress meter. The stressed syllables are red.‘T’is three o’clock; and, Romans, yet ere nightWe shall try fortune in a second fightFYI: Shakespeare’s plays are about 90 % verse and 6% prose
17 Label the unstressed/stressed syllables And after this let Caesar seat him sure:For we will shake him, or worse days endure.Cassius: I.iiWhen iambic pentameter is read out loud it will follow a beat such as –da DUM, da-DUM or toe-heel, toe-heel
18 Blank Verse Unrhymed, 10-syllable lines of unstressed/stressed meter Are yet two Romans living such as these?The last of all the Romans, fare thee well!Do you notice a pattern as to when Shakespeare uses verse and when he uses prose? (look at pages )