Presentation on theme: "Skills and Techniques Stages of Learning"— Presentation transcript:
1 Skills and Techniques Stages of Learning Higher P.E.Skills and TechniquesStages of Learning
2 3 Stages of learningPreparation StagePractice StageAutomatic Stage
3 Preparation Stage1st stage a learner goes though when learning a new skill.Find out what the skill involvesDetermine the sub-routines required for the skill (focus technique)Often at initial level of abilityErrors are likelyEncouragement requiredMore external feedback required: visual (demonstrations), verbal (instructions),Shadow drills
4 Prep Stage cont…The Cognitive (or preparation) Stage allows you to learn or practice skills without pressure. This stage is often used with beginners or when introducing a new skill. This allows you to concentrate on basic key elements of the skill or movement.Shadow drills are practiced to determine the skills needed for sub routines and also external feedback is given a lot to encourage the learner and boost their confidence.
5 Prep Stage cont…What methods of practice would you use in this stage and why?Shadow PracticeWhy?Used to introduce the performer to the movement, composure, posture and balance of what is needed to perform the skill or technique correctly.
6 Prep Stage cont…Read Page 18 and 19 in your info booklet and add info to your prep stage notes.What other practices would you use?
7 Practice StageThe Associative (or practice) Stage allows you to focus on practice. At this stage the emphasis is on the correct sequence of movement patterns to produce the desired result. The repetition of the skill will become more accurate and also more consistent. The amount of practice time needed varies with the complexity of the skill.
8 Practice Stage cont… Link sub-routines together focus on accuracy and effectivenessMistakes likely but reducing (fewer errors are experienced, usually caused by difficulties in controlling speed, force or timing of movements)Intermediate level of abilityFeedback internal and external (change in type of feedback, move from visual/verbal to more reliance on internal/kinesthetic)Repetition drills and target
9 More on Practice StageRepetition drills are used as they groove muscle memory and techniques such as ‘trigger words’ can be used to remember and focus on a particular sub routine while performing the skill.To reinforce the subroutines in Preparation, Action and Recovery phases.Corrects errorsIncreased kinaesthetic awarenessFocus on 1 specific skill at a timePractice is uninterruptedControlled environment
10 Target drills (Practice stage) Drill now becomes measurable. (measures performers accuracy)Allows performer to set achievable goals.
11 Automatic StageThe Autonomous (or automatic) Stage when a performance reaches this level, movements are almost automatic with actions being carried out with very little conscious thought. Fewer mistakes are made and you are more consistent, reliable and accurate during your performance.Most key sub-routines automaticAttention paid to decision-making and shot selectionLess mistakesMore kinaesthetic awareness and feedbackAwareness of flight, pace and direction of skill
12 Automatic Stage cont….performers can produce skilled actions automatically with little or no conscious control to movement productionphysical performance is highly consistent, efficient and having few errorsperformers are now capable of identifying own errors and correcting themselvesperformer frees his/her mind to deal more effectively with environmental information, such as player and object positions, or how a particular strategy is developingrole for the teacher is in assisting with the finer details of technique or focusing on strategy and mental preparation.
13 Combination Drillslinking more than one skill and repeating the order (i.e. High serve, o/h clear, drop shot, net, net, high clear)Develops more than one skill at the same timeImproves consistency, accuracy and fluencyIntroduces varietyPrevents boredomIncrease motivation
14 Pressure Drills execute the technique in a varied/random situation Game like situationsMaintains motivationDevelops consistency and accuracyImproves decision makingIncreases the challenge
15 Conditioned Games Game like situations Promotes the use of the techniques learnedDevelops consistency and accuracy of shotImproves decision makingGames can be adaptedHighly motivatingHighly challenging
16 QuestionExplain what you understand about each stage of learning (6 marks)Complete this question for tomorrow.You may also wish to read page 80 and 81 of the Higher P.E. book.