Presentation on theme: "Classwork Date Lesson 6 – Lesson objective Practice Types and presentation of skills By the end of this lesson you should be able to: Describe."— Presentation transcript:
Classwork Date Lesson 6 – Lesson objective Practice Types and presentation of skills By the end of this lesson you should be able to: Describe methods of practice. Evaluate critically different types of practice methods and their application to the performance of movement skills. Explain the appropriate use of practice methods to maximise effectiveness. Explain the role of mental practice and rehearsal compared with physical practice.
Massed practice Learners practice continuously without breaks or rest intervals. Basketball players doing ten shots at each of six points around the ‘D’.
Massed practice advantages Good for the grooving-in of habitual skills. Good for experienced performers who are highly motivated with good fitness levels. Most suited to simple discrete skills of short duration. Can save on time as skills don’t have to be reintroduced after breaks between sessions. Suitable when coach wants to simulate performance conditions where there is a fatigue element.
Massed practice disadvantages Can cause fatigue and de-motivation, which can lead to poor performance and learning. Can lead to boredom. Beginners can be affected by lack of concentration and attention. Not suitable for dangerous tasks.
Distributive practice Practice sessions have rest intervals included. E.g. Learner swims a width and then rests while they receive some feedback from the teacher.
Distributive practice — advantages Good for most skill learning — particularly beginners and learners with low levels of motivation and fitness. Good for learning continuous skills. Rest intervals allow the learner time to recover physically and mentally. Rest intervals allow opportunity to receive extrinsic feedback. Research has shown this to be the most effective form of practice. Helps maintain motivation. Good for complex and potentially dangerous skills.
Distributive practice — disadvantages More time-consuming than massed practice. Skills may have to be re-introduced after each break. May lead to frustration in discrete skills when rest intervals delay practice — de-motivation, e.g. pupils taking it in turn with only one ball!
Varied practice The environment in which the skills are practised is constantly changing. This practice is the most suitable method for OPEN skills. e.g. 2v1 practice for passing.
Varied practice advantages The performer learns to adapt the technique to the changing environment. Adaptations are stored and increase schema. Develops decision-making & perceptual skills. Improves selective attention. Improves detection of warning signals, making info processing (reaction time) faster and more efficient.
Varied practice disadvantages Need to have already learned a grooved- in motor programme in a fixed environment. Not suitable for closed skills.
Fixed practice The environment in which the skill is practised remains constant. The same movement is practised each time — the practice is repetitive. Sometimes referred to as skill drills. e.g. Shot putt.
Fixed practice advantages The skill becomes grooved-in or over- learned. Information processing demands are low. Specific movement patterns can be over-learned and become habitual. Allows learner’s attention to be directed elsewhere.
Fixed practice disadvantages Not suitable for open skills. Can be boring and de-motivating.
Mental rehearsal/practice Performer goes through the movement in their mind without any movement occurring. Sometimes referred to as imagery. When mental practice takes place, muscular neurones fire as if the muscle is active.
Mental rehearsal uses/advantages Useful in the cognitive/early stages of learning where learner builds up a mental picture. Advanced performers use it to rehearse complex skills and go over strategies and tactics. Used to reinforce successful movements. Experienced performers use it for emotional control & establishing optimum levels of arousal. Can be used to focus attention. Can reduce anxiety and increase confidence.
Mental rehearsal uses/advantages Used in conjunction with physical practice it can improve the speed of learning. Effective with skills that have a high cognitive element e.g. team strategies.
Mental rehearsal — disadvantages Used by itself it is not as effective as physical practice. Not effective with simple skills, e.g. those that rely on strength.
Task Discuss what type of practice is best suited to learning a potentially dangerous skill. What type of performer would benefit from having massed practice? What are the most appropriate forms of practice for open skills? What are the most appropriate forms of practice for closed skills?