3 DigestionProcess of breaking down food into smaller forms which can be absorbed or excreted
4 Intracellular digestion: (unicellular) digestion occurs in vacoules inside the cell Extracellular digestion: (Multicellular) digestion takes place outside the body cells in organ systems
5 Ingestion: consumption of a substance by an organism Egestion: removal of undigested food or feces from the gut (solid waste)Excretion: removal of wastes from cell’s activities (liquid and gas waste)
6 MouthHas three major weapons for starting the breakdown of food so that our bodies can use it as energy:Teeth- responsible for grinding, mashing and chewing the food (mechanical).Tongue- main player in swallowing and has power to move and mush the food (mechanical).Saliva- mixed with the food to help it continue its journey into the esophagus (chemical).
7 Mechanical Digestion Breaks food into smaller pieces Surface area increasesEnzymes have more surfaces to work on and complete break down faster
8 Salivary Amylase Enzyme which breaks down carbohydrates in mouth Carbs finish being digested in small intestine
9 EsophagusThe esophagus is like a stretchy pipe that's about 10 inches long.It connects the mouth to the stomachContraction of muscles tomove the food (bolus)through theesophagus= peristalsis
11 Choking In the back of the mouth are two openings. One is the esophagus, which leads to the stomach; food goes down this pathway.The other is the trachea, which is the opening air must pass through to get to the lungs.When swallowing occurs, the trachea is covered by a flap called the epiglottis, which prevents food from entering the lungs.
12 StomachSqueezes and churns the food mixing it with digestive juices (acids and enzymes) and forms chymeHydrochloric Acid
13 ProteasesEnzymes which break down proteins into amino acids are located in the stomach
14 Ulcers small erosion (hole) in the gastrointestinal tract The direct cause of peptic ulcers is the destruction of the gastric mucosal lining of the stomach by hydrochloric acidInfection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori is thought to play an important role in causing both gastric ulcers
15 Acid RefluxAcid reflux occurs when the stomach churns up acid or refluxes it into the esophagus, causing a burning sensation in the chest or throat.Too much acid can push back through a valve between the stomach and the esophagus
16 Small Intestine Named for small diameter 20 to 25 feet long As the thick liquid paste travels through your small intestine, the nutrients (vitamins, minerals, proteins, carbohydrates and fats) from the food can finally pass through the wall of the small intestine into your blood
17 Villi in small intestine IncreaseSurfaceAreaForAbsorptionMost chemicalDigestionOccurs in SI
18 Emulsification of Fats Lipases break down smaller particles into glycerol and fatty acids
19 Accessory GlandsPancreas, the liver and the gallbladder help by sending different juices to the first part of the small intestine.The pancreas makes juices that help the body digest fats and protein.A juice from the liver called bile helps to absorb fats into the bloodstream.The gallbladder is like a warehouse for this bile, holding onto extra amounts of it when the body needs it.
23 Gall bladderStores bileBuildups of bile harden=gallstones
24 Large Intestine ~ 5 feet long Most of the water that is left in the liquid mix is absorbed into the blood.As the water leaves the mix, the waste that's left gets harder as it moves along, until it becomes a solid.Waste then collects in the rectum at the end of the large intestine and finally leaves the body through an opening called the anus.
25 Roughage Indigestible portion of plant foods Also known as dietary fiberKeeps digestive system functioning properly because it moves food along