Functions Ingest food Digestion - Process organic molecules so they can enter cells (break down and absorb food). Eliminates waste materials Digestion is a metabolic activity.
Mouth Breaks down food into small pieces Begins starch digestion (amylase) Saliva produces amylase and lubricates food Moves food into esophagus Epiglottis covers trachea Peristalsis moves food to stomach
Stomach First opening – cardiac sphincter Muscles churn food – more mechanical digestion. Glands produce gastric juice = pepsin + HCl Pepsin breaks down proteins (only at pH 2) Food leaves after 2-4 hrs Second opening – pyloric sphincter
Small Intestine Digestion is finished here –Peristalsis finishes mechanical digestion –Pancreatic juice produces enzymes to finish chemical digestion of fats, proteins and carbohydrates –The digested food passes into the blood vessels in the wall of the intestine through the process known as diffusion. The small intestine is the site where most of the nutrients from ingested food are absorbed. Question: What are the building blocks for fats, proteins, and carbohydrates?
Small Intestine Villi From the wall of the intestine project microscopic finger-like pieces of tissue called villi (Latin for "shaggy hair"). The function of the villi is to increase the amount of surface area available for the absorption of nutrients.
Liver Produces bile Question: What is the function of bile? Bile is stored in the gallbladder.
Digestive System Disorders Tooth Decay – caused by bacteria. Too much sugar and too little brushing. Ulcers – open, painful sore in the stomach lining Appendicitis – infection of the appendix Diarrhea – watery feces. Feces do not remain in large intestine long enough for water to be absorbed. Constipation – Feces remain in colon too long. Caused by too little fiber and water.