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Section 1 Church Reform and the Crusades

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1 Section 1 Church Reform and the Crusades
Chapter 14 Section 1 Church Reform and the Crusades

2 The Crusades In 1093, Byzantine Emperor Alexius Comnenus sent an appeal to Robert the Count of Flanders and to the Pope Urban II for help against invading Muslim Turks. The Turks invasion of the Byzantine Empire threatened the Christian Holy Land.


4 The Crusades Pope Urban II issued a call for a “Holy War” or Crusade, to regain control of the Christian Holy Land. Christian Nations from across Europe would unite forces to re-conquer the holy land from the Muslims. Pope Urban II assured all those who fought and died were assured a place in heaven. .

5 Causes of the Crusading Spirit
From the Great Lords to the humble peasants, all types joined in the Crusades. Between 50,000-60,000 Knights joined the Crusades. Kings saw this a way to get rid of bad Knights. Younger son’s who were not going to inherit the families property were sent to fight

6 1st Crusades Crusaders knew nothing of the geography, climate, or culture of the Holy Land. They had no strategy. The noble leaders argued among them selves, had no adequate supply line. The 1st Crusade in 1097 had 12,000 Crusaders capture Jerusalem only to lose it back to the Turks in 1144.


8 1st and 2nd Crusades cont…
The 2nd Crusade planned to take the city of Jerusalem but failed mainly due to the great Muslim leader Saladin. Saladin was the most famous Muslim leader of 1100’s. He was a devoted leader who’s enemies regarded him as honest and brave.

9 The 3rd Crusade The 3rd Crusade was lead by 3 powerful Monarchs. French King Phillip Augustus, German Emperor Fredrick I (Barbarossa) and the English King Richard the Lion Hearted. Fredrick I drowned on the journey. Phillip Augustus argued with Richard and went home. Leaving Richard to regain the Holy Land alone.

10 The 3rd Crusade cont… Richard was noted as the “Lion Hearted” because of his courage, grace and ruthlessness. Richard and Saladin had many battles until the two agreed to a truce in 1192. Both agreed to keep Jerusalem under Muslim control but all unarmed Christians could visit all holy sites.


12 4th Crusade The 4th Crusade was formed after Pope Innocent the III appealed for a recapture of Jerusalem. The Knights who joined, began looting Constantinople in These actions ended the campaign.

13 Later Crusades Several crusades were launched but to Africa not the Holy Land. The Children's Crusade of 1212 occurred when 1000’s of children set out for the holy land. Many died from the cold, starved, turned back, drowned at sea or were sold to slavery.

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