3 We are asking for more cognitive demand from our students… The kind and level of thinking required of students to successfully engage with and solve a task.Ways in which students interact with content.
4 Little Red Riding Hood Activity Now let’s apply your rigor definition…Your class has just read some version of Little Red Riding Hood.What is a basic comprehension question you might ask?What is a more rigorous question you might ask?
6 DOK is not about difficulty; its about complexity! It’s about the ways that our students’ interact with content!
7 What is the difference between Bloom’s and Webb? Bloom’s Taxonomy –What type of thinking (verbs) is needed to complete a task?Webb’s Depth of Knowledge –How deeply do you have to understand the content to successfully interact with it? How complex is the content?
8 Bloom’s Taxonomy and DOK Extended ThinkingStrategic ThinkingSkills and ConceptsRecall and ReproductionDOK is not a taxonomy!
9 “A mile wide and an inch deep” What does DOK focus on?Focuses on complexity of content standards in order to successfully complete an assessment or task. The outcome (product) is the focus of the depth of understanding.“A mile wide and an inch deep”
10 What DOK is NOT!!!!a taxonomy (Bloom’s)the same as difficultyabout using “verbs”The Depth of Knowledge is NOT determined by the verb (Bloom’s Taxonomy), but by the context in which the verb is used and the depth of thinking required.With DOK what comes after the verb is more important than the verb itself!
12 Webb’s Depth-of-Knowledge Levels DOK-1 – Recall & Reproduction - Recall of a fact, term, principle, concept, or perform a routine procedureDOK-2 - Basic Application of Skills/Concepts - Use of information, conceptual knowledge, select appropriate procedures for a task, two or more steps with decision points along the way, routine problems, organize/display data, interpret/use simple graphsDOK-3 - Strategic Thinking - Requires reasoning, developing a plan or sequence of steps to approach problem; requires some decision making and justification; abstract, complex, or non-routine; often more than one possible answerDOK-4 - Extended Thinking - An investigation or application to real world; requires time to research, problem solve, and process multiple conditions of the problem or task; non-routine manipulations, across disciplines/content areas/multiple sources
13 There is usually a right answer! The focus is on strategic thinking, so there can be multiple right answers!There is usually a right answer!
14 Little Red Riding Hood Activity Revisited… Where would your questions fall on eachDOK Level?DOK 1: Recall and ReproductionDOK 2: Skills and ConceptsDOK 3: Strategic Thinking/ReasoningDOK 4: Extended Thinking
15 The Cognitive Rigor Matrix: Little Red Riding Hood Depth +thinkingLevel 1 Recall & ReproductionLevel 2 Skills & ConceptsLevel 3Strategic Thinking/ ReasoningLevel 4Extended ThinkingRemember-Recall factsUnderstand-Identify characters, setting, etc.-Retell or summarize…ApplyAnalyze-Compare-contrast-Analyze multiple texts/sources & using text evidence for supportEvaluate-Justify judgments using details/evidence from textCreate-Develop a creative summary
16 Some General Rules of Thumb… If there is only one correct answer, it is probably level DOK 1 or DOK 2 DOK 1: you either know it (can recall it, locate it, do it) or you don’tDOK 2 (conceptual): apply one concept, then make a decision before going on applying a second concept If more than one solution/approach, requiring evidence, it is DOK 3 or 4DOK 3: Must provide supporting evidence and reasoning (not just HOW solved, but WHY – explain reasoning)DOK 4: all of “3” + use of multiple sources or texts
17 What does this mean to your classroom? English Language ArtsMathematicsScienceSocial StudiesComputersArtVocational EducationPhysical Education, etc.
18 The Hess Cognitive Rigor Matrix: Applies Webb’s DOK to Bloom’s Cognitive Process DimensionsDepth +thinkingLevel 1 Recall & ReproductionLevel 2 Skills & ConceptsLevel 3Strategic Thinking/ ReasoningLevel 4Extended ThinkingRemember-Recall, locate basic facts, details, eventsNot appropriate at this levelUnderstand-Select appropriate words to use when intended meaning is clearly evident-Specify or explain relationships-summarize-identify central idea-Explain, generalize, or connect ideas using supporting evidence (quote, example…)-Explain how concepts or ideas specifically relate to other content domains or conceptsApply-Use language structure (pre/suffix) or word relationships (synonym/antonym) to determine meaning-Use context to identify meaning of word-Obtain and interpret information using text features-Use concepts to solve non-routine problems-Devise an approach among many alternatives to research a novel problemAnalyze-Identify whether information is contained in a graph, table, etc.-Compare literary elements, terms, facts, events-analyze format, organization, & text structures-Analyze or interpret author’s craft (literary devices, viewpoint, or potential bias) to critique a text-Analyze multiple sources-Analyze complex/abstract themesEvaluate-Cite evidence and develop a logical argument for conjectures-Evaluate relevancy, accuracy, & completeness of informationCreate-Brainstorm ideas about a topic-Generate conjectures based on observations or prior knowledge-Synthesize information within one source or text-Synthesize information across multiple sources or texts
19 DOK Level 1: Recall and Reproduction Requires recall of information, such as a fact, definition, term, or performance of a simple process or procedure.Answering a Level 1 item can involve following a simple, well-known procedure or formula.List animals that survive by eating other animalsLocate or recall facts found in textDescribe physical features of placesDetermine the perimeter or area of rectangles given a drawing or labelsIdentify elements of music using music terminologyIdentify basic rules for participating in simple games and activities
20 DOK Level 2: Skills and Concepts Includes the engagement of some mental processing beyond recalling or reproducing a responseItems require students to make some decisions as to how to approach the question or problemActions imply more than one mental or cognitive process/stepCompare desert and tropical environmentsIdentify and summarize the major events, problems, solutions, conflicts in literary textExplain the cause-effect of historical eventsPredict a logical outcome based on information in a reading selectionExplain how good work habits are important at home, school, and on the jobClassify plane and three dimensional figuresDescribe various styles of music
21 DOK Level 3: Strategic Thinking/ Reasoning Requires deep understanding exhibited through planning, using evidence, and more demanding cognitive reasoningThe cognitive demands are complex and abstractAn assessment item that has more than one possible answer and requires students to justify the response would most likely be a Level 3Compare consumer actions and analyze how these actions impact the environmentAnalyze or evaluate the effectiveness of literary elements (e.g., characterization, setting, point of view, conflict and resolution, plot structures)Solve a multiple-step problem and provide support with a mathematical explanation that justifies the answer
22 DOK Level 4: Extended Thinking Requires high cognitive demand and is very complex.Students are expected to make connections, relate ideas within the content or among content areas, and select or devise one approach among many alternatives on how the situation can be solvedDue to the complexity of cognitive demand, DOK 4 often requires an extended period of timeGather, analyze, organize, and interpret information from multiple (print and non print) sources to draft a reasoned reportAnalyzing author’s craft (e.g., style, bias, literary techniques, point of view)Create an exercise plan applying the “FITT (Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type) Principle”
24 Resources Karen Hess on DOK http://vimeo.com/18281415 Depth of Knowledge Video from NYDOEDepth of Knowledge for Four Content Areas, Norman L. Webb, March 28, 2002A Guide for Using Webb’s Depth of Knowledge with Common Core State Standards, Karen Hess, 2013 Common Core InstituteLevels of Thinking in Bloom’s Taxonomy and Webb’s Depth of Knowledge, Debbie Perkins, 2008Depth of Knowledge (DOK) Levels, Norman L. Webb, 2005Hess’ Cognitive Rigor Matrix, Karen K. Hess, 2009