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An Understanding of Webb’s Depth of Knowledge Tammy Seneca, Ph.D.

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1 An Understanding of Webb’s Depth of Knowledge Tammy Seneca, Ph.D.
Teaching with Depth An Understanding of Webb’s Depth of Knowledge Tammy Seneca, Ph.D.

2 What does cognitive rigor mean to you?

3 We are asking for more cognitive demand from our students…
The kind and level of thinking required of students to successfully engage with and solve a task. Ways in which students interact with content.

4 Little Red Riding Hood Activity
Now let’s apply your rigor definition… Your class has just read some version of Little Red Riding Hood. What is a basic comprehension question you might ask? What is a more rigorous question you might ask?

5 What is Depth of Knowledge?

6 DOK is not about difficulty; its about complexity!
It’s about the ways that our students’ interact with content!

7 What is the difference between Bloom’s and Webb?
Bloom’s Taxonomy –What type of thinking (verbs) is needed to complete a task? Webb’s Depth of Knowledge –How deeply do you have to understand the content to successfully interact with it? How complex is the content?

8 Bloom’s Taxonomy and DOK
Extended Thinking Strategic Thinking Skills and Concepts Recall and Reproduction DOK is not a taxonomy!

9 “A mile wide and an inch deep”
What does DOK focus on? Focuses on complexity of content standards in order to successfully complete an assessment or task. The outcome (product) is the focus of the depth of understanding. “A mile wide and an inch deep”

10 What DOK is NOT!!!! a taxonomy (Bloom’s) the same as difficulty about using “verbs” The Depth of Knowledge is NOT determined by the verb (Bloom’s Taxonomy), but by the context in which the verb is used and the depth of thinking required. With DOK what comes after the verb is more important than the verb itself!

11 Webb’s Depth of Knowledge (DOK) Resource:

12 Webb’s Depth-of-Knowledge Levels
DOK-1 – Recall & Reproduction - Recall of a fact, term, principle, concept, or perform a routine procedure DOK-2 - Basic Application of Skills/Concepts - Use of information, conceptual knowledge, select appropriate procedures for a task, two or more steps with decision points along the way, routine problems, organize/display data, interpret/use simple graphs DOK-3 - Strategic Thinking - Requires reasoning, developing a plan or sequence of steps to approach problem; requires some decision making and justification; abstract, complex, or non-routine; often more than one possible answer DOK-4 - Extended Thinking - An investigation or application to real world; requires time to research, problem solve, and process multiple conditions of the problem or task; non-routine manipulations, across disciplines/content areas/multiple sources

13 There is usually a right answer!
The focus is on strategic thinking, so there can be multiple right answers! There is usually a right answer!

14 Little Red Riding Hood Activity Revisited…
Where would your questions fall on each DOK Level? DOK 1: Recall and Reproduction DOK 2: Skills and Concepts DOK 3: Strategic Thinking/Reasoning DOK 4: Extended Thinking

15 The Cognitive Rigor Matrix: Little Red Riding Hood
Depth + thinking Level 1 Recall & Reproduction Level 2 Skills & Concepts Level 3 Strategic Thinking/ Reasoning Level 4 Extended Thinking Remember -Recall facts Understand -Identify characters, setting, etc. -Retell or summarize… Apply Analyze -Compare-contrast -Analyze multiple texts/sources & using text evidence for support Evaluate -Justify judgments using details/evidence from text Create -Develop a creative summary

16 Some General Rules of Thumb…
If there is only one correct answer, it is probably level DOK 1 or DOK 2   DOK 1: you either know it (can recall it, locate it, do it) or you don’t DOK 2 (conceptual): apply one concept, then make a decision before going on applying a second concept  If more than one solution/approach, requiring evidence, it is DOK 3 or 4 DOK 3: Must provide supporting evidence and reasoning (not just HOW solved, but WHY – explain reasoning) DOK 4: all of “3” + use of multiple sources or texts

17 What does this mean to your classroom?
English Language Arts Mathematics Science Social Studies Computers Art Vocational Education Physical Education, etc.

18 The Hess Cognitive Rigor Matrix:
Applies Webb’s DOK to Bloom’s Cognitive Process Dimensions Depth + thinking Level 1 Recall & Reproduction Level 2 Skills & Concepts Level 3 Strategic Thinking/ Reasoning Level 4 Extended Thinking Remember -Recall, locate basic facts, details, events Not appropriate at this level Understand -Select appropriate words to use when intended meaning is clearly evident -Specify or explain relationships -summarize -identify central idea -Explain, generalize, or connect ideas using supporting evidence (quote, example…) -Explain how concepts or ideas specifically relate to other content domains or concepts Apply -Use language structure (pre/suffix) or word relationships (synonym/antonym) to determine meaning -Use context to identify meaning of word -Obtain and interpret information using text features -Use concepts to solve non-routine problems -Devise an approach among many alternatives to research a novel problem Analyze -Identify whether information is contained in a graph, table, etc. -Compare literary elements, terms, facts, events -analyze format, organization, & text structures -Analyze or interpret author’s craft (literary devices, viewpoint, or potential bias) to critique a text -Analyze multiple sources -Analyze complex/abstract themes Evaluate -Cite evidence and develop a logical argument for conjectures -Evaluate relevancy, accuracy, & completeness of information Create -Brainstorm ideas about a topic -Generate conjectures based on observations or prior knowledge -Synthesize information within one source or text -Synthesize information across multiple sources or texts

19 DOK Level 1: Recall and Reproduction
Requires recall of information, such as a fact, definition, term, or performance of a simple process or procedure. Answering a Level 1 item can involve following a simple, well-known procedure or formula. List animals that survive by eating other animals Locate or recall facts found in text Describe physical features of places Determine the perimeter or area of rectangles given a drawing or labels Identify elements of music using music terminology Identify basic rules for participating in simple games and activities

20 DOK Level 2: Skills and Concepts
Includes the engagement of some mental processing beyond recalling or reproducing a response Items require students to make some decisions as to how to approach the question or problem Actions imply more than one mental or cognitive process/step Compare desert and tropical environments Identify and summarize the major events, problems, solutions, conflicts in literary text Explain the cause-effect of historical events Predict a logical outcome based on information in a reading selection Explain how good work habits are important at home, school, and on the job Classify plane and three dimensional figures Describe various styles of music

21 DOK Level 3: Strategic Thinking/ Reasoning
Requires deep understanding exhibited through planning, using evidence, and more demanding cognitive reasoning The cognitive demands are complex and abstract An assessment item that has more than one possible answer and requires students to justify the response would most likely be a Level 3 Compare consumer actions and analyze how these actions impact the environment Analyze or evaluate the effectiveness of literary elements (e.g., characterization, setting, point of view, conflict and resolution, plot structures) Solve a multiple-step problem and provide support with a mathematical explanation that justifies the answer

22 DOK Level 4: Extended Thinking
Requires high cognitive demand and is very complex. Students are expected to make connections, relate ideas within the content or among content areas, and select or devise one approach among many alternatives on how the situation can be solved Due to the complexity of cognitive demand, DOK 4 often requires an extended period of time Gather, analyze, organize, and interpret information from multiple (print and non print) sources to draft a reasoned report Analyzing author’s craft (e.g., style, bias, literary techniques, point of view) Create an exercise plan applying the “FITT (Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type) Principle”


24 Resources Karen Hess on DOK
Depth of Knowledge Video from NYDOE Depth of Knowledge for Four Content Areas, Norman L. Webb, March 28, 2002 A Guide for Using Webb’s Depth of Knowledge with Common Core State Standards, Karen Hess, 2013 Common Core Institute Levels of Thinking in Bloom’s Taxonomy and Webb’s Depth of Knowledge, Debbie Perkins, 2008 Depth of Knowledge (DOK) Levels, Norman L. Webb, 2005 Hess’ Cognitive Rigor Matrix, Karen K. Hess, 2009

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