Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Group Timelines Horizontal line represent ‘time’

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Group Timelines Horizontal line represent ‘time’"— Presentation transcript:

1 Group Timelines Horizontal line represent ‘time’
Go back in time years. Think of events that have affected or been affected by your fisheries (political, environmental, social etc). Events can be from local to national to global See full details in Session plan. Trainer puts up Flipchart sheets on wall, explains that line represents time + writes a few key dates and ‘now’ next to the line. (e.g. obvious increases or reductions in resources/ laws/ changes in practices/fuel price ups or downs/ natural disasters/ changes in government/ set up of MPA... anything that has affected their fishery). Elicit an example, write it down as 1 sentence on card and stick it on timeline to show participants what to do. The discussion here is just as important as final product, as it brings out institutional memory. Trainer needs to ensure that events related to people, policy and environment (many external drivers) are expressed (we do not want cards with only fishery events). Draw/write each event (with dates) on a separate card Plot your cards onto the timeline 1

2 4. Principles of EAFM Essential EAFM Date • Place Version 1

3 Session objectives After this session you will be able to:
Understand the principles of EAFM and their link to the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (CCRF) Self explanatory. Ask who knows about the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries and/or regional derivatives such as the Regional Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries in SE Asia developed by SEAFDEC. 3

4 Key principles of EAFM P1: Good governance P4: Multiple objectives
P3: Increased participation P2: Appropriate scale P7: Precautionary approach P5: Cooperation and coordination There are 7 principles. At this stage of the course simply read these out (Note P1 = Principle 1). These are expanded on later. P1: Good governance P2: Appropriate scale P3: Increased participation P4: Multiple objectives P5: Cooperation and coordination P6: Adaptive management P7: Precautionary approach P6: Adaptive management 4

5 Principles are not new The principles of EAFM are not new but were set out in the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (CCRF) The CCRF was developed by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) All FAO Member countries agreed to CCRF in 1995 Your country is a Member of FAO Stress that the principles of EAFM are not new but grew out of the acceptance of the concept of sustainable development. For the sustainable development of fisheries, the FAO developed a Code of Responsible Fisheries, which was agreed to by all FAO member countries in All Asia-Pacific countries attending this course (with the exception of North Korea) are members of FAO. 5

6 Good governance Consensus Accountable Participatory Transparent
Follows the rule of law Responsive The First Principle of EAFM is Good governance. Good governance includes: effective institutions and arrangements for setting and implementing rules and regulations. This slide shows 8 characteristics of good governance. Discuss each of these; ensure participants agree with meaning. See Module 4, section 3.1 for details on each of these 8 characteristics. (Accountability = both upwards and downwards) Diagram from Effective and efficient Equitable and inclusive Source: 6

7 Note: These align with the three components of EAFM
Appropriate scale Four dimensions: Ecological scales Socio-economic scales Political/governance scales Temporal scales These align with the 3 components of EAFM (introduced in morning session 2). The 3 main scaling dimensions are (i) Ecological scaling – trying to align with ecosystem boundaries, (ii) Socio-economic scaling – trying to include the appropriate socio-economic issues and (iii) political/governance scaling – who has the mandate to manage. Also scaling needs to consider changes over time i.e. temporal. See Module 4 section 3.2 for details. Note: These align with the three components of EAFM 7

8 Scales – extremes Ecological Single species  Large Marine Ecosystem
Socio-economic Village  Coastline (rural & urban) Governance Single jurisdiction  Multiple jurisdictions Temporal Short-term  Long-term To try and clarify what we mean by scaling, we can consider two extremes along each of the 4 dimensions i.e. (i) from single species to large marine ecosystems, (ii) from a village up to a whole coastline, (iii) from a single jurisdiction to multiple jurisdictions and (iv) from short-term to long-term considerations. 8

9 Realities of scale Challenge:
Probably no such thing as a correct scale Take a practical approach – begin working with what exists e.g. jurisdictional boundaries Challenge: Getting the scale correct for the four dimensions. This often requires increased cooperation and coordination across jurisdictions, agencies and stakeholders. The ideal scale is based on an ecosystem scale. However, in reality the scale at which fishery management occurs will be primarily determined by existing jurisdictional and political boundaries, but there are some general socio-economic and ecological issues, which, if considered would help broaden the mandate of fisheries management. It is best to work with practical scales and boundaries- this means that the stock or fishery under consideration should also be framed within meaningful jurisdictional boundaries. (e.g. state or province level). 9

10 Discuss In many countries, fisheries management has been devolved to the district/municipality level. In your groups, answer the question: “Is the district/municipality the correct scale to manage all fisheries?” What scale do you work at? How would you scale? This discussion should take into account: different fish ranging from sedentary such as a cockle to highly migratory species such as tuna, and different fishing gears harvesting the same resource e.g. inshore gillnets close to the coast and trawlers further offshore. There is not much use managing the community fishing if most of the problems are caused by trawlers!!! The scale of management, therefore, will differ according to what fishery is being managed and who is doing the fishing. The district/municipality will probably not be appropriate for many fisheries. 10

11 Increased participation
Participation is central to the process Much more on the importance of participation later in the course. See module 4 Principles, section 3.3 for more details. Get participants to say why this is actually NOT ideal photo of participation (no women stakeholders; clothing of speaker (suit and tie) suggests hierarchy…. To foster participation facilitator needs to try to ‘blend’ in more; also paper notes (power) are not shared (they are held by the speaker). Photo source: FAO. 11

12 Many stakeholders Fishers and fisher associations
Governments (district – national) Fishery related (e.g. boat owners, money lenders) Compliance and enforcement Other users (e.g. tourism, ports) External agents (e.g. NGOs, researchers) EAFM involves a diversity of stakeholders- here are some example categories. We will discuss in more detail in Start up A and B. (The visual of diversity of EAFM stakeholders is from Session 8 (both slide 8 and in Module). 12

13 P4: Multiple objectives EAFM deals with interactions within the fishery sector and with other users Each sector and user group probably have their own objectives Need to balance these objectives Requires stakeholder engagement and negotiation Because EAFM is finding the balance between ecological well-being and human well-being, there will be many objectives coming from the different stakeholders (jargon for this is societal objectives). In many cases, these objectives will conflict and, as an important principle of EAFM we need to address these multiple objectives and find TRADE OFFS (as we started discussing when watching Nemo video clip in session before lunch). 13

14 Cooperation and coordination
EAFM involves cooperation and coordination among many stakeholders e.g. Fishers Fisher associations External agents NGOs, academics, researchers Government National/regional/ provincial/state/ municipal/ village within agency/institutions across institutions, both government and stakeholder and with non-fishery sectors from global to national to district levels For EAFM it is necessary to coordinate and cooperate (i) horizontally: within and across institutions/agencies, both government and stakeholder, and also with non-fishery sectors, and (ii) vertically from national to district levels. 14

15 The institutions This is a visual of the main actors and required linkages. Going clockwise from the bottom, point out stakeholders that affect or are affected by the fishery. These are (i) coastal communities, (ii) fishers, (iii) governments at various levels and lastly (iv), what is called here “external agents”. Other agencies could include Research Institutes, Enforcement Officers (e.g. navy and coast guard), etc. 15

16 Institutional cooperation and coordination
16 Institutional cooperation and coordination How do you achieve this? Talk to others Link in with existing arrangements (e.g. ICM, inter-agency activities) Share information Harmonize work plans/budgets Memorandums of understanding/binding agreements Any other suggestions? Briefly discuss - we will come back to this on day 4, Step 4 (session 15) for implementation. 16

17 Adaptive management Learning while doing Evaluate Improve Discard Work
In adaptive management you start management actions as soon as practical and despite uncertainty and learn from what you have done by evaluating the outcome. Over time, the lessons learnt will reduce the uncertainty. Adaptive management provides a framework for managing for change over time by learning from doing. One big advantage of adaptive management is that it can be used in data-poor situations. One example is reducing fishing effort. All the existing evidence highlights the need for a reduction of fishing effort. However, we do not know what the optimum fishing effort level really is. In this case, you start reducing and monitor the result until, several years later the optimal effort is more obvious. This links closely to the precautionary principle (next slide). In the example, you do not have to know what the optimum level is to start managing. More uncertainty Less uncertainty TIME 17

18 The precautionary approach
“… where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation” (UNCED, 1992) From UNCED Links closely with the principle of adaptive management. Simply put (i) you do not wait until you have all your scientific data before you make decisions/ act/ manage, and (ii) it also means that where there is uncertainty, any actions need to be less risky. An example: Country xxx knows that there are untapped fishery resources in offshore waters. However, the extent of the resource is not known. Rather than doing more research cruises, the fishery is opened to only a limited number of boats (2-3) which, in exchange for the right to fish, must provide data on catch, effort and costs. From this data, the extent of the resource will become more certain and the number of boats can be adjusted accordingly. See next slide for another example. Lack of information should not be used as reason for lack of action Where there is uncertainty, management actions should be less risky 18

Source THE PRECAUTIONARY APPROACH Here is another example. In this example it is known that when fishers fish in an area with certain gear (e.g. small mesh trawls), they catch small fish and also the catch of fish for other gears is less. However, there is no evidence of this. Faced with this uncertainty, it was decided to introduce bigger mesh sizes until the fishers could prove that their small-meshed nets were not causing any harm. Source: Adapted from ICSF (2013) 19

20 Key messages EAFM principles are not new – based on the FAO Code of Conduct for Fisheries (to which your country is a member) EAFM has seven principles These can be used to track EAFM implementation Self explanatory 20

Download ppt "Group Timelines Horizontal line represent ‘time’"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google