Presentation on theme: "References: J.A. & Geiser K. 2001: The precautionary principle stimulus for solutions and alternatives based environmental policy Menv. 2003: Québec adoptes."— Presentation transcript:
References: J.A. & Geiser K. 2001: The precautionary principle stimulus for solutions and alternatives based environmental policy Menv. 2003: Québec adoptes les plus hauts standards en Amerique du Nord pour diminuer l’exposition aux pesticides. Government du Quebec, Quebec, Canada. Talbot D. 2014: Implementing the Precautionary principle in urban pest management, the Quebec experience Teacher: Paolo Fabbri Students: Baldini Lisa Ballotta Lucrezia Gorghiu Medeea Alexandra International Business and Development
Introduction to the Precautionary Principle Definition: Definition: «In order to protect the environment, the precautionary approach shall be widely applied by States according to their capabilities. Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation.» (Rio Declaration, 1992)
The precautionary principle is characterized by 2 main ideas: 1.the need by decision-makers to anticipate damage before it occurs; 2. the concept of proportionality of the risk and the cost and practicability of a proposed action.
Environment and health Fields typically concerned by the precautionary principle are the possibility of: food safety extinction of species threats to public health persistent or accute pollution global warming or abrupt climate change in general long term effects of new technologies introduction of new and potentially harmful products into the environment, threatening biodiversity.
The Québec experience Pesticides Control and destroy dangerous organisms Protect human health 1970 – 1990 household insecticides increase by almost 600%
new policy group 25 October 2001 new policy group for the use of pesticides in urban environment draft version 3 July 2002 draft version of the «Pesticides Management Code» in the Gazette officielle du Québec first Québec = the first Noth American jurisdiction to ban the use of some products in urban environment «Pesticides Management Code» 3 March 2003 adoption of the «Pesticides Management Code» with a specific list
Data: 4 months of observations Reports Government documents 200 documents 4 key individuals interviewed
Today Decrease Decrease of the sale of household insecticides From 31 % to 25% in the last decade
The precautional principle is not a new concept! It has its roots in German It is at the heart of century of medical and public health theories and practices. It is an important element in International treaties
OPTION ANALYSIS: 1. Analysing the problem 2. Identifying options to address it 3. Analysing pros and cons of different options 4. Examining trade- offs 5. Implementing the best option 1.Facility planning There are 3 lines of theory of option analysis: 1.Facility planning for pollution prevention 2. Technology options analysis 2. Technology options analysis for chemical safety 3. Alternative assessment
1. FACILITY PLANNING Source reduction plan as a document describing the means and timing by which corporations will reduce the risks of toxic chemical in production. Development of chemical inventories, understanding how and why chemical are used Establishment of priorities and numerical goals for reduction Development of alternatives Establishment of schedules, performance targets and monitoring to link changes to actual reductions The process to institute such a plan:
Laws to implement planning Planning function Public access to data State and local level government policies Benefits: raising the level of attention about toxic chemicals increasing motivation to change presenting alternatives guiding decision making advocating for resources, and providing information to evaluate the consequences to change
2. TECHNOLOGY OPTION ANALYSIS It calls on firms to institute planning to prevent chemical accidents, involving redesigning production systems to avoid accident risks and compares them with existing technologies on the basis of performances, health, safety and ecological effects. It can also be used to identify the types of technologies that shouldbe developed to reduce risks. ensure that the firm recognizes the hazards to which it is exposing its workers and surrounding community it recognizes superior technological options that are available. Benefits:
3. ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT «One of the most essential, and powerful steps to change is understanding that there are alternatives» It can apply to all decisions, with potentially damaging effects on health or the environment, including development, products, technologies, farming, family planning, and so on.
Alternatives assessment must be a public process, in fact, it could confer three main benefits: Those who may be adversely affected can raise potentially better alternatives The assessment draws on a wide set of experts and source of experiences Public becomes aware that environmental impacts are choices, and that options for preventing these impacts are both technically and economically feasible. A lternative assessment consists of 3 main components: full range of option 1. presentation of a full range of option potential adverse effect of each option 2. presentation of the potential adverse effect of each option beneficial effect of each option 3. presentation of the beneficial effect of each option