Presentation on theme: "8 th ELA-Schreiber. English verbs have four moods: indicative, imperative, subjunctive, and infinitive. Mood is the form of the verb that shows the."— Presentation transcript:
English verbs have four moods: indicative, imperative, subjunctive, and infinitive. Mood is the form of the verb that shows the mode or manner in which a thought is expressed.
expresses an assertion, denial, or question ◦ Little Rock is the capital of Arkansas. ◦ Ostriches cannot fly. ◦ Have you finished your homework?
expresses command, prohibition, entreaty, or advice: ◦ Don’t smoke in this building. ◦ Be careful! ◦ Don’t drown that puppy!
expresses doubt or something contrary to fact. Modern English speakers use indicative mood most of the time, resorting to a kind of “mixed subjunctive” that makes use of helping verbs:
◦ If I should see him, I will tell him. ◦ Americans are more likely to say: ◦ If I see him, I will tell him. (ind) ◦ The verb may can be used to express a wish: ◦ May you have many more birthdays. ◦ May you live long and prosper.
The verb were can also indicate the use of the subjunctive: ◦ If I were you, I wouldn’t keep driving on those tires. ◦ If he were governor, we’d be in better fiscal shape.
expresses an action or state without reference to any subject. It can be the source of sentence fragments when the writer mistakenly thinks the infinitive form is a fully- functioning verb.
When we speak of the English infinitive, we usually mean the basic form of the verb with “to” in front of it: to go, to sing, to walk, to speak. (dictionary form)
Verbs said to be in the infinitive mood can include participle forms ending in -ed and -ing. Verbs in the infinitive mood are not being used as verbs, but as other parts of speech: VERBALS
A verbal is a word that is formed from a verb that act as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. There are three types of verbals ◦ Gerunds ◦ Infinitive ◦ Participles
A gerund is a verbal that ends in –ing and acts as a noun Like nouns gerunds may be subject, predicate nominatives, direct objects, indirect objects, and objects of prepositions.
Subject- ◦ Calling the monster Frankenstein is a mistake. Predicate Nominative- ◦ Frankenstein’ s error was creating the monster
Direct Object- ◦ I like watching horror movies. Object of a preposition- ◦ The monster was responsible for killing three people
A gerund phrase consists of a gerund plus it modifier and complements ◦ Writing Frankenstein must have given Mary Shelly goose bumps!
A participle is a verb form that acts as an adjective. It modifies a noun or a pronoun. ◦ The exhausted campers found a crumbling schoolhouse.
There are two kinds of participles The present participle always ends in –ing ◦ Creaking eerily, the door swung open.
The past participle ends in – ed or the simple past tense form of the verb. ◦ The deserted building was old and decrepit. ◦ Fallen brick blocked the entryway
A participle phrase consist of a participle plus it modifiers and complements ◦ They spied a shape lurking in the dark shadow. ◦ Frightened by the sight, they stopped cold.
Verbs in the infinitive mood are not being used as verbs, but as other parts of speech: To err is human; to forgive, divine. Here, to err and to forgive are used as nouns.
He is a man to be admired. Here, to be admired is an adjective, the equivalent of admirable. It describes the noun man. He came to see you. Here, to see you is used as an adverb to tell why he came.
An infinitive phrase is an infinitive plus its modifiers and complement. The entire phrase functions as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. ◦ To believe in life on Mars was common in the 1930s. (noun) ◦ Martians might use flying saucers to invade Earth. (adverb) ◦ I took time to read an old science fiction book. (adjective)