Presentation on theme: "Moral Development. Growing Morality Infants uncomfortable when others are hurt interest in others Early Childhood aware that harmful actions."— Presentation transcript:
Growing Morality Infants uncomfortable when others are hurt interest in others Early Childhood aware that harmful actions are wrong cooperation & negotiation begin to develop Middle Childhood understand fairness, capacity to feel guilt & shame more influenced by peers, increasingly prosocial Adolescence more advanced reasoning personal needs & self-interests affect decisions
Early Theories Begins with external control Moves to internal control Freud / Erikson Behaviorism Social Learning Theory Constructivism Personal preferences Social conventions Moral imperatives
Theory of Moral Development Lawrence Kohlberg 6 stages Used moral dilemmas to determine
Kohlberg’s Stages Level One Stage 1: Punishment-avoidance and obedience Stage 2: Exchange of favors / self interest Level Two Stage 3: Good boy/good girl Stage 4: Law and order Level Three Stage 5: Social contract Stage 6: Universal ethical principle
Kohlberg’s Dilemma In Europe, a woman was near death from a rare form of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her, a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The druggist was charging $2,000, ten times what the drug cost him to make. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together about half of what the drug cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said no. So Heinz got desperate and broke into the man's store to steal the drug for his wife.
Heinz Dilemma Reasoning LEVEL ONE Stage 1: Punishment avoidance pro – “Hopefully he won’t get caught.” con – “He’ll go to jail.” Stage 2: Exchange of favors/ self-interest pro – “Heinz will be lonely if his wife dies.” con – “Prison is an awful place.”
Heinz Dilemma Reasoning LEVEL TWO Stage 3: Good boy/good girl pro – “He’ll show what a good husband he is.” con – “Other people will think he is a bad man.” Stage 4: Law and order pro – “A husband has a duty to care for his wife.” con – “It’s against the law.”
Heinz Dilemma Reasoning LEVEL THREE Stage 5: Social contract pro – “The law isn’t intended to cause someone’s death.” con – “The druggist’s rights aren’t being respected.” Stage 6: Universal ethical principle pro – “Saving a life is more important than property.” con – “If he steals the drug, others who need the drug can’t buy it.”
Gilligan’s Theory Carol Gilligan Questioned Kohlberg’s theory Identified 3 stages
Development of Aggression At what age? Types of aggression Instrumental Hostile Overt Relational Which gender is most aggressive?
Fostering Prosocial Behaviors Direct teaching Label appropriate behaviors as they occur Plan cooperative activities Expose children to models of prosocial behavior Clear expectations for behavior Induction
Discipline vs Punishment discipline is long-term fosters self-regulation, respect, problem- solving; fosters internal motivation punishment is short-term stops a behavior positive discipline positive discipline
Discipline Strategies Establish and maintain logical routines Set and maintain clear expectations: clarify wanted behaviors Use the environment to support expectations Offer choices: fewer w/ young children more open-ended for older children Offer opportunities for problem-solving, practice and role-playing Consider how big a deal it is; choose to ignore small transgressions
Setting Limits Acknowledge child’s opinion & wishes Explain your reasoning Model using different perspectives Promote children’s problem-solving; negotiate if appropriate Be consistent Use logical consequences when limits are ignored