Presentation on theme: "MIDDLE AMERICA (CHAPTER 4). INTRODUCTION TO MIDDLE AMERICA DEFINING THE REALM MEXICO, CENTRAL AMERICA, CARIBBEAN ISLANDS MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES."— Presentation transcript:
INTRODUCTION TO MIDDLE AMERICA DEFINING THE REALM MEXICO, CENTRAL AMERICA, CARIBBEAN ISLANDS MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES FRAGMENTED - PHYSICALLY AND POLITICALLY DIVERSE CULTURALLY – AFRICAN (CARIBBEAN), NATIVE AMERICAN & SPANISH (MEXICO & CENTRAL AMERICA) POVERTY IS ENDEMIC (LEAST DEV. IN THE AMERICAS
REGIONS OF MIDDLE AMERICA MEXICO CENTRAL AMERICA GREATER ANTILLES LESSER ANTILLES
THE LEGACY OF COLONIALISM LAND WAS APPROPRIATED - COLONIAL COMMERCIAL INTERESTS (MAP, PG 214) LANDS PREVIOUSLY DEVOTED TO FOOD CROPS FOR LOCAL CONSUMPTION WERE CONVERTED TO CASH CROPPING FOR EXPORT LAND ALIENATION INDUCES: FAMINE POVERTY MIGRATION LITTLE AGRICULTURAL DIVERSITY
ALTITUDINAL ZONATION Middle & South America’s Vertical Climate Zones
HACIENDA vs PLANTATION HACIENDA SPANISH INSTITUTION NOT EFFICIENT BUT BROUGHT SOCIAL PRESTIGE WORKERS LIVED ON THE LAND PLANTATION NORTHERN EUROPEAN ORIGINS EXPORT ORIENTED MONOCROPS IMPORTED CAPITAL AND SKILLS SEASONAL LABOR EFFICIENCY IS KEY
AGRICULTURAL INSTITUTIONS PLANTATIONPLANTATIONHACIENDAHACIENDA PRODUCTION FOR EXPORTPRODUCTION FOR EXPORT SINGLE CASH CROPSINGLE CASH CROP SEASONAL EMPLOYMENTSEASONAL EMPLOYMENT PROFIT MOTIVE $$$PROFIT MOTIVE $$$ MARKET VULNERABILITYMARKET VULNERABILITY EJIDO DOMESTIC MARKETDOMESTIC MARKET DIVERSIFIED CROPSDIVERSIFIED CROPS YEAR ROUND JOBSYEAR ROUND JOBS SMALL PLOT OF LANDSMALL PLOT OF LAND SELF-SUFFICIENTSELF-SUFFICIENT SMALL SURPLUSESSMALL SURPLUSES LAND “OWNERSHIP”LAND “OWNERSHIP” COMMUNAL VILLAGECOMMUNAL VILLAGE COLLECTIVECOLLECTIVE
MAQUILADORAS Tijuana Nogales Ciudad Juarez Matamoros Reynosa Monterrey Chihuahua
Modern industrial plants Assemble imported, duty-free components/raw materials Export the finished products Mostly foreign-owned (U.S., Japan) 80% of goods reexported to U.S. Tariffs limited to value added during assembly MAQUILADORAS
Initiated in the 1960s Assembly plants that pioneered the migration of industries in the 1970s Today >4,000 maquiladoras >1.2 million employees MAQUILADORAS
Maquiladora products MAQUILADORAS Electronic equipment Electric appliances Auto parts Clothing Furniture
Advantages Mexico gains jobs. Foreign owners benefit from cheaper labor costs. Disadvantages – U.S. Jobs Effects Regional development Development of an international growth corridor between Monterrey and Dallas - Fort Worth MAQUILADORAS
NAFTA Effective 1 January 1994 Established a trade agreement between Mexico, Canada and the US, which: Reduced and regulated trade tariffs (taxes), barriers, and quotas between members Standardized finance & service exchanges
MEXICO AND NAFTA Foremost, it promises a higher standard of living. NAFTA creates more jobs for Mexicans as US companies begin to invest more heavily in the Mexican market. Mexican exporters increase their sales to the US and Canada. Downside – cheap U.S. corn now floods Mexico, leading to bankruptcies among local farmers.
U.S. TRADE WITH CANADA & MEXICO Canada remains as the United States’ largest export market. Since 1977, Mexico has moved into second place (displacing Japan). 85% of all Mexican exports now go to the United States. 75% of Mexico’s imports originate in the United States.
ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS Tropical Deforestation 3 million acres of woodland in Central America disappear each year! (we’ll talk about Brazil in South America later) What are the causes of tropical deforestation?
CAUSES OF TROPICAL DEFORESTATION Clearing of rural lands to accommodate meat production and export Population explosion: forests are cut to provide crop-raising space and firewood Rapid logging of tropical woodlands to meet global demands for new housing, paper, and furniture
TOURISM: A MIXED BLESSING? Advantages Presents state and regional economic options A clean industry Disadvantages Disjunctive development Degrades fragile environmental resources Inauthentic representations of native cultures