Presentation on theme: "Latin America: Central America and Caribbean. INTRODUCTION DEFINING THE REGION – Mexico – Central America – Caribbean Islands (Greater and Lesser Antilles)"— Presentation transcript:
INTRODUCTION DEFINING THE REGION – Mexico – Central America – Caribbean Islands (Greater and Lesser Antilles) MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES – FRAGMENTED - PHYSICALLY AND POLITICALLY – CULTURALLY DIVERSE
Cultural Hearth CULTURE HEARTHS– – MAYA CIVILIZATION CLASSIC PERIOD 200-900 AD HONDURAS, GUATEMALA, BELIZE, YUCATAN PENINSULA THEOCRATIC STRUCTURE – AZTEC CIVILIZATION 1300 AD VALLEY OF MEXICO TENOCHTITLAN (>100,000 PEOPLE)
THE LEGACY OF COLONIALISM LANDS DEVOTED TO FOOD CROPS FOR LOCAL CONSUMPTION (subsistence farming) WERE CONVERTED TO CASH CROPPING FOR EXPORT ________________________ Land Alienation INDUCES: – FAMINE AND POVERTY – MIGRATION – LITTLE AGRICULTURAL DIVERSITY
Mainland vs Rimland Mainland – Isolation – Altitudinal Climates – Mountains – Euro/Indian – Mestizo (mixed Euro and Native American) – Haciendas Rimland –Accessablility –Tropical Zone Climates –Islands –African-European –Mulatto (mixed African and Euro) –Plantations
HACIENDA vs. PLANTATION Hacienda – Spanish Institution; inefficient, but held prestige; workers lived on the land Plantation – Northern European Institution; export oriented; mono-crops; seasonal labor and efficiency are key
Agriculture: Plantation v. Hacienda PLANTATIONHACIENDA PRODUCTION FOR EXPORTPRODUCTION FOR EXPORT SINGLE CASH CROPSINGLE CASH CROP SEASONAL EMPLOYMENTSEASONAL EMPLOYMENT PROFIT MOTIVE $$$PROFIT MOTIVE $$$ MARKET VULNERABILITYMARKET VULNERABILITY DOMESTIC MARKETDOMESTIC MARKET DIVERSIFIED CROPSDIVERSIFIED CROPS YEAR ROUND JOBSYEAR ROUND JOBS SMALL PLOT OF LANDSMALL PLOT OF LAND SELF-SUFFICIENTSELF-SUFFICIENT
Mexico- Population Mexico is the most populated, and economically most developed of the Middle American nations Population 112 Million (11 th largest) Also the most populated Spanish speaking country in the world.
MAQUILADORAS Tijuana Nogales Ciudad Juarez Matamoros Reynosa Monterrey Chihuahua
Initiated in the 1960s as coupon houses (pay was in food coupons redeemable at local stores) Assembly plants that pioneered the migration of industries in the 1970s Basically a factory the imports materials and equipment, then re-exports the finished product MAQUILADORAS
Modern industrial plants Assemble imported, duty-free components/raw materials Export the finished products Mostly foreign-owned (U.S., Japan) 80% of goods re-exported to U.S. MAQUILADORAS
DISADVANTAGES – May take jobs away from originating country ADVANTAGES – Provides higher paying jobs for locals – Foreign owners benefit from cheaper labor costs. EFFECTS – Regional development – Development of an international growth corridor between Monterrey and Dallas - Fort Worth MAQUILADORAS
U.S. TRADE WITH CANADA & MEXICO Canada remains as the United States’ largest export market. Since 1977, Mexico has moved into second place (displacing Japan). 85% of all Mexican exports now go to the United States. 75% of Mexico’s imports originate in the United States.
CENTRAL AMERICA Guatemala Belize Honduras El Salvador Nicaragua Costa Rica Panama What type of export products do we get from these countries?
Exports Guatemala – Coffee, Beans, and Sugar Belize – Sugar, Citrus, Bananas, Seafood, and Clothing Honduras – Clothing and Coffee El Salvador – Clothing Nicaragua – Coffee, Beef, Shrimp and Lobster Costa Rica – Electronics, Bananas, and Coffee Panama – Salmon/Tuna, Beef, and Watermelon
THE CARIBBEAN BASIN The Greater Antilles – Cuba – Hispaniola (consists of Haiti/Dominican Republic) – Jamaica – Puerto Rico The Lesser Antilles - Barbados - Trinidad and Tabago
Physical Geography Central America Mountainous, with small coastal plain. Caribbean Basin Volcanic islands, mountainous with reef formation around them.
PRIMARY SECTOR DEPENDENCE Dominican Republic (49% Agriculture) – Sugarcane, coffee, cotton, cocoa, and tobacco Jamaica (22.5% Agriculture) – Sugar, bananas, and rum Cuba (20% Agriculture) – Sugar, tobacco, citrus, and coffee
THE TOURISM OPTION Antigua and Barbuda – Direct contribution of 13% to GDP and affects growth in other sectors The Bahamas – Tourism alone provides 60% of GDP and directly or indirectly employs 40% of the population.
TOURISM: A MIXED BLESSING? Advantages – State and regional economic options – A clean industry – Educational Disadvantages – Disjunctive development – Degrades fragile environmental resources – Inauthentic representations of native cultures
ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS Tropical Deforestation 3 million acres of woodland in Central America disappear each year!
CAUSES OF TROPICAL DEFORESTATION Clearing of rural lands to accommodate meat production and export Rapid logging of tropical woodlands to meet global demands for new housing, paper, and furniture Population Explosion: forests are cut to provide crop-raising space and firewood
Middle America and Caribbean: Conclusions The landscape is mountainous with some coastal regions. Climate is tropical, varies with elevation, and dependent upon windward/leeward sides. Economic activity is dependent upon primary sector, although tourism is profitable. Population is primarily found in temperate areas. Culture is a mix of European, Indigenous and African populations.