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Crisis Intervention: Partner Violence Crisis Intervention: Partner Violence.

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Presentation on theme: "Crisis Intervention: Partner Violence Crisis Intervention: Partner Violence."— Presentation transcript:

1 Crisis Intervention: Partner Violence Crisis Intervention: Partner Violence

2 Facts & Figure  1-4 million cases annually. Approximately 25-33% of women will experience partner violence.  About 50% of mental health clients have histories of partner violence.  As many as 1/3 of the visits by women to the ER are for treatment of injuries resulting from partner violence.  30% of female homicide victims are killed by current or former partners.  Partner violence is associated with the stability of the intimate relationship. Married women experience lower levels of domestic violence.  Substance abuse may be a factor in half of the cases of partner violence.

3  Partner Violence tends to be exhibited early in the tenure of a relationship and it tends to escalate over time.  50% of victimized women will eventually contact the police.  Separating from the batterer increases one’s risk for serious injury or death.

4 1. Tension Builds 2. Battering Occurs 3. Contrition & Honeymoon Phase Walker’s Cycle of Partner Violence

5 Consequences of Partner Violence  Psychological distress & disorders.  Medical problems & injuries.  Constant fear & stress.  Learned helplessness.  Negative effects for children involved.  Co-Morbid Problems: suicide attempts, substance abuse, child abuse in victim’s family, mood disorders.

6 Why do people batter? CulturalIndividual Violence is condoned as a means for exerting power & control over women. Modeling & Exchange Theory. Violence is an acceptable means of solving problems in our society. Fears of Abandonment Personality Problems: jealousy, aggression, dependency, poor impulse control, & possessiveness Alcohol & Drug abuse.

7 Why do victims stay? ExternalIndividual Lack of financial resources. Intermittent Reinforcement. Cultural or religious admonitions to keep relationship intact. Cognitive Barriers: Learned Helplessness, selective memory, & normalization of abuse. Threats of increased violence or threats against the victim’s children. Pygmalion Project. Fear of Stigmatization. Identity Issues. Lack of protection from judicial system. Dependency Problems.

8 Antecedents to Help-Seeking Behavior  Severe battering incident resulting in physical injuries.  Recent escalation in pattern of violence.  Death threats.  High-profile cases in the news media.  Child Abuse.  Victim attempts to exert independence.

9 Cost-Benefit Analysis

10 Safety Planning  Evaluate for suicide/homicide risks.  Identify Potential Warning Signs of Violence.  Identify specific steps to take in a dangerous situation (e.g., safe places to stay, phone numbers, escape plan).  Options if Domestic Violence Occurs: 1. Press Assault Charges. 2. Order of Protection from court. 3. Protective Services from the Cabinet.

11 CI Strategies  Don’t be afraid to bring up the topic of relationship violence.  Duty to report domestic violence in KY.  Reinforce client for taking action, regardless of how small it might be.  Resolve immediate needs (medical, housing, financial).  Identify potential resources (internal & external).  Education about legal options, cycle of abuse, & available community services (e.g., legal aid, job training).

12  Social Support (e.g., Support Groups).  Avoid being too directive. Provide victim with information and choices, and encourage her to make her own decision.  Importance of follow-up contact.

13 Treatment for Batterers  The judicial system’s response to DV has evolved from avoidance to mediation to aggressive prosecution.  2/3 of men assigned to treatment programs drop out. Unfortunately, many batterers do not receive any negative consequences for noncompliance with court orders.  Most programs are offered in a group-format & focus on Anger Management or consciousness raising (Duluth model).

14 Typical Program Objectives  Reduce battering.  Attitude changes.  Promote personal responsibility.  Education about partner violence.  Learn alternative means of managing anger and for getting one’s needs met.  Increase empathy for victims.  Skill Development: Communication/Assertiveness, Stress Management, & Problem-Solving Skills.  Reduce A & D Abuse.

15 Do these programs work?  Approximately 33% of batterers who complete these programs experience recidivism, comparable to the recidivism rate for those who do not complete treatment.  Those who complete these programs tend to have slightly better outcomes than those who do not. [A recent study (2004) found that treatment programs may only reduce recidivism by about 5%.]  However, any “improvements” may be attributable to pre-existing differences between completers and dropouts, not the programs themselves.

16  After legal system intervention, batterers may redirect their physical aggression into more verbal abuse.  Some research suggests that swift arrest and punishment may be just as effective as “treatment programs” in reducing recidivism.  A few studies indicate that couples therapy may be as effective (or ineffective) as traditional group, anger management programs.

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