Psych of the Contemporary Family IPV Overview Incidence, context, & facts Why do abusers commit? Why do victims stay? Power & control & the battering cycle.
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Presentation on theme: "Psych of the Contemporary Family IPV Overview Incidence, context, & facts Why do abusers commit? Why do victims stay? Power & control & the battering cycle."— Presentation transcript:
Psych of the Contemporary Family IPV Overview Incidence, context, & facts Why do abusers commit? Why do victims stay? Power & control & the battering cycle Assessing Abuse Working with batterers Working with victims Helpful phrases Next time: Local, legal responses, death review
U.S. Incidence of Intimate Violence 22.1% of women have been physically assaulted by an intimate partner at some time in their lives. 1.3 million women are victims of physical assault by an intimate partner each year. 85% of assaults by intimate are against women. 37% of women treated in ER hurt by intimates. 1/3 of heterosexual and gay relationships Women 9X more at risk at home, risk 16-24 y.o. 1 in 5 women have been raped 80% by someone known > 1 in 7 married women raped in marriage
Violence & Poverty Studies: Poverty associated with more battering 1/3 to 2/3 welfare recipients victims 1/3 to 1/2 of homeless women fleeing dv 3 million children in US exposed each yr Direct obstacle to work & job training Abusers sabotage financial independence Fear, isolation interfere with work & education Poor credit, rental, and employment hx PTSD, MDD, acute & chronic health problems
Facts about Relationship Violence Involves an ongoing pattern of behavior Power and control Batterer is responsible Violence is a choice Increases in severity & frequency Substance abuse in 50-80% Crosses all lines, all ethnicities Discrimination compounds effects
Why Do Abusers Commit Intimate Violence? 60% abused or witnessed Traditional gender roles Low esteem, fear of dependence, lack empathy Impulsive, use force to solve problems Don’t think it’s wrong Know s/he won’t tell Don’t think would be punished History of neuropsych impairment increases risk
Why do Abused Partners Stay? Threats Economic Low Self Worth/Shame Concern children need 2 parents Love, loyalty, emotional need Denial, accept as normal, hope Isolation (physical/social/cultural) Family/Cultural beliefs about marriage Lack info on rights/safety Fear being outed, disbelieved/ostracized
Abuse: Physical, Sexual, Emotional Tension Building Triggers Violence Honeymoon/De-escalation *also called “presents & promises” & seduction stage Power & Control & The Battering Cycle
Assessing Abuse Only 6% couples cite DV on marital intake forms Direct questioning: ~50% contained abuse Can use measures of IPV to educate clients: Conflict Tactics Scale 2 (Straus et al, 1996) Woman Abuse Scale (Saunders, 1995) Abusive Behavior Observation Checklist (Dutton, 1992) & Index of Spouse Abuse (Gondolf, 1987) Assess trends in severity and frequency: Danger Assessment Instrument (Campbell, 1995) Open ended & scenario based interviewing
Batterer Treatment Most states mandate tx to reduce violence Groups on attitude and new behaviors Focus: end violence, accountability 10-36 sessions (CA: 52), Usually male leaders Do establish clear informed consent Do establish confidentiality & safety guidelines 1/3 to 1/2 of men drop out Tx has modest significant effects on recidivism Seem to end most violent behaviors Members view relational support as most helpful Conjoint tx only possible if no abuse is present!
Interventions for Batterers Duluth Group Approach Ecological, Blends empathy & confrontation Assess abuse pattern, severity, victims, history Assess motivation to change and comorbidity Safety & protection options Orient: goals & philosophy, build rapport Educate on power & control, anger skills, CBT Might explore family of origin & attachment Role play family situations in group Program end/booster sessions Culturally tailored interventions/referrals
Working with Victims of Intimate Abuse Assess psych/somatic symptoms & abuse history Listen and believe all requests for help Specify safety options Assess child abuse/neglect Label feelings Don’t judge, blame, or demand decisions Help victim problem solve by listing needs Help victim identify expectations Empower Provide peer support Keep door open
Helpful Phrases to Remember No one deserves to be abused. Whatever you did to survive was right. I believe you. I don’t think it was your fault. Bad judgement is not a “rapeable” offense. You can take responsibility for drinking too much but that’s where your responsibility ends. That must have been scary/upsetting. I don’t think you’re crazy. You are reacting normally to a crazy situation. Whatever you did was not an invitation for abuse.