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Nervous System Sports Training and Physiology Kociuba lic=1&article_set=59295&cat_id=20607.

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Presentation on theme: "Nervous System Sports Training and Physiology Kociuba lic=1&article_set=59295&cat_id=20607."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nervous System Sports Training and Physiology Kociuba lic=1&article_set=59295&cat_id=20607

2 Nervous System - Objectives Label and name the parts of the NS –the divisions of the NS Explain what a neuron looks like and the types you have in your body Describe the functions of the NS

3 Nervous System – Objectives 2 Name the 4 major parts of the brain Describe the function of the 4 parts of the brain Explain how the major parts of the brain are broken into smaller parts and their functions Describe what happens as people age

4 Part 1 of the N.S. Central Nervous System (CNS) –Brain Located in the skull –Spinal Cord Located in the vertebral canal Broken into 5 regions –Cervical (Head, neck, shoulder, and upper limb movement) –Thoracic (Rib and hip movement, Posture) –Lumbar (Hip and lower limb movement) –Sacral (Lower limb movement) –Coccygeal (tailbone)

5 Part 2 of the N. S. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) –External to the CNS –Divided into 2 parts Sensory or Afferent division Motor or Efferent division (divided into 2 parts) –Somatic motor nervous system –Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

6 Cells of the Nervous System Neurons (primary cells) –Consist of a cell body and two types of processes Dendrites: Short, often highly branched cytoplasmic extensions that are tapered from their bases at the neuron cell body to their tips Axons: long cell process extending from the neuron cell body Glial Cells or Neuroglia (secondary cells)

7 Structural Classifiaction of Neurons Multi-polar Neuron –many dendrites and an axon Bi-polar Neuron –a dendrite and an axon Uni-polar Neuron –an axon and no dendrites

8 Ways the Cells get information Cells either gain their information by: –Secreting chemicals to the body and brain –Create and send electrical impulses to get information to the body and the brain

9 The Brain AKA: the control center of the body

10 The Brain and It’s Parts… The control center for many of the body’s functions Parts –Brainstem –Cerebellum –Diencephalon –Cerebrum Connective tissue membranes

11 Brain Stem Consists of –Medulla oblongata –Pons –Midbrain Connects the spinal cord and cerebellum to the remainder of the brain 10-12 pairs of cranial nerves arise from it

12 Cerebellum and Diencephalon Attached to the posterior brainstem The word means “little brain” Divided into: –Anterior lobe –Posterior lobe Located between the brainstem and cerebrum Main components –Thalamus emotions –Subthalamus Motor functions –Epithalamus Sense of smell Sleep-wake cycle –Hypothalamus ANS Endocrine and Lymbic Basic body functions

13 Cerebrum What most people think of when they think of the brain Accounts for the largest portion of total brain weight Divided into right and left hemispheres by a longitudinal fissure Each hemisphere is divided into lobes –Frontal lobe –Parietal lobe –Occipital lobe –Temporal lobe

14 Meninges, Ventricles, and Cerebrospinal Fluid Meninges are connective tissues that surround and protect things The ventricles hold the Cerebrospinal Fluid Cerebrospinal Fluid fills the ventricles, the space around the brain and is found in the spinal cord

15 Functions of the Nervous System Sensory Input –Sensory receptors monitor external and internal stimuli Integration –The brain and spinal cord process input and either respond, store, or ignore the input

16 Functions of the Nervous System Control of Muscles and Glands –Controls the major movements of the body (skeletal muscle) as well as cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands Homeostasis –Stimulates or inhibits the activities of other systems to help maintain a constant internal environment

17 Functions of the Nervous System Mental Activity –The brain is the center of this function –It is the center of all activities Consciousness Thinking Memory Emotions


19 NS and the Skin Regulates body temperature by controlling sweat glands and blood vessels The skin hold receptors for heat, cold, temp, pain, pressure and vibration so that the NS can regulate what happens to the skin

20 NS and the: Bones –The NS makes one aware of pain when a bone is broken making it less likely for us to move the part. –The bones support and protect the NS Muscles –Stimulates muscle contractions Voluntary Involuntary –Maintains muscle tone –Sensory receptors in the muscles tell the body where it is

21 NS and the: Endocrine System Controls the release of hormones –These hormones in turn affect neuron growth and metabolism Lymphatic System Stimulates and Inhibits immunity in ways that are not well understood

22 NS and the: Cardiovascular System Regulates heart rate and force of contraction Changes blood vessel diameter Respiratory System Regulates depth and rate in which we breathe

23 NS and the Digestive System Regulates secretion from the digestive glands Regulates secretion from the digestive organs Controls the mixing and movement of the digestive tract

24 Aging and the Nervous System As people age: –The size and weight of the brain decreases –The senses gradually decline because the number of neurons in this area declines –The functions of all other neurons decreases because the number of neurons decline as well –CNS processing decreases

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