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Chapter 17 Persuasive Speaking.

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1 Chapter 17 Persuasive Speaking

2 Section 1: What is Persuasive Speaking?
A persuasive speech asks your audience to “buy” something that you are selling. It can be a product, belief, attitude, or an idea. Persuasive speaking demands that you effectively: Induce your audience to believe as you do Influence your audience in order to cause some sort of directed action to take place.

3 Persuasive situations:
Convincing your parents to let you attend a concert. Convincing your teacher to let you have more time on an assignment. Steps to being persuasive: Awaken a belief in the listener that you have a good idea. Show them you have a well thought out plan. Show them your plan is realistic and the “right thing to do”.

4 Audience analysis Evaluate accurately how your audience feels about you and your message. “Canned speeches” are not going to work with every audience. (planned speech that you deliver the same way to every group) Customize your speech to the needs of the audience.

5 Section 2: Analyzing Your Audience
Your primary purpose, regardless of audience type, is to gain as many supporters as possible. Audience types: Supportive audience – friendly Members like you and what you have to say Easiest audience to address because they are ready to support and promote your ideas Uncommitted audience – neutral Need information to make up their minds “convince me!” attitude

6 Indifferent audience – apathetic (they don’t care!)
Captive audience – being forced to listen to you Think what you’re saying doesn’t apply to them Show them how it applies to them, shock them into listening Opposed audience – confrontational Objective should be to just get a fair hearing Show you are willing to compromise Use a disclaimer – you’re not an expert, say what you’re not saying

7 Pop Quiz What is a “canned speech”? Name the 4 audience types.
What does convincing your audience to “buy” something mean?

8 Section 3: Appealing to Your Audience
Appeal has two different meanings: An urgent request What is attractive or interesting about someone or something Aristotle’s appeals: Logical appeal – solid reasoning and valid evidence Greek word logos Be organized Offer proof (specific evidence; something which establishes the truth)

9 When used correctly, logical appeal contains the following elements...
Strong, clear claims Reasonable qualifiers for claims Warrants that are valid Clear reasons for claims Strong evidence (facts, statistics, personal experience, expert authority, interviews, observations, anecdotes) Acknowledgement of the opposition When used poorly, logical appeals may include... Over-generalized claims Reasons that are not fully explained or supported Logical fallacies Evidence misused or ignored No recognition of opposing views

10 Example of Logical Appeal

11 2. Emotional appeal – most people rely on their feelings at least as much as on their reasoning
Greek word pathos Appeal to people’s feelings of love, anger, disgust, fear, compassion, patriotism, etc.

12 When done well, emotional appeals...
Reinforce logical arguments Use diction and imagery to create a bond with the audience in a human way Appeal to idealism, beauty, humor, nostalgia, or pity (or other emotions) in a balanced way Are presented in a fair manner When used improperly, emotional appeals... Become a substitute for logic and reason (TV and magazine advertising often relies heavily on emotional rather than logical appeal) Uses stereotypes to pit one group of people against another (propaganda and some political advertising does this) Offers a simple, unthinking reaction to a complex problem Takes advantage of emotions to manipulate (through fear, hate, pity, prejudice, embarrassment, lust, or other feelings) rather than convince credibly

13 Example of Emotional Appeal

14 3. Ethical appeal – your listeners will “buy” what you’re selling because they trust you and your credibility (believability). Greek word ethos Show your goodwill – prove you care

15 Two essential elements of ethos:
Honesty – exhibit personal integrity (strong sense of right and wrong). Audience believes in your reputation. You are sincere (mean what you say). Competency – capability (ability to get the job done). Solid work ethic, value being prepared. Usually have impressive credentials (qualifications).

16 When used correctly, the speaker is seen as...
Well-informed about the topic Confident in his or her position Sincere and honest Understanding of the reader's concerns and possible objections Humane and considerate When used incorrectly, the speaker can be viewed as... Unfair or dishonest Distorting or misrepresenting information (biased) Insulting or dismissive of other viewpoints Advocating intolerant ideas

17 Example of Ethical Appeal
Mother Teresa For over forty years she ministered to the poor, sick, orphaned, and dying, while guiding the Missionaries of Charity's expansion, first throughout India and then in other countries.By the 1970s she had become internationally famed as a humanitarian and advocate for the poor and helpless, due in part to a documentary, and book, Something Beautiful for God by Malcolm Muggeridge. She won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 for her humanitarian work. Mother Teresa's Missionaries of Charity continued to expand, and at the time of her death it was operating 610 missions in 123 countries, including hospices and homes for people with HIV/AIDS, leprosy and tuberculosis, soup kitchens, children's and family counseling programs, orphanages, and schools.

18 It is sometimes necessary to use all three types of appeal in order to be the most persuasive.

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