2 Section 1: What is Persuasive Speaking? A persuasive speech asks your audience to “buy” something that you are selling.It can be a product, belief, attitude, or an idea.Persuasive speaking demands that you effectively:Induce your audience to believe as you doInfluence your audience in order to cause some sort of directed action to take place.
3 Persuasive situations: Convincing your parents to let you attend a concert.Convincing your teacher to let you have more time on an assignment.Steps to being persuasive:Awaken a belief in the listener that you have a good idea.Show them you have a well thought out plan.Show them your plan is realistic and the “right thing to do”.
4 Audience analysisEvaluate accurately how your audience feels about you and your message.“Canned speeches” are not going to work with every audience. (planned speech that you deliver the same way to every group)Customize your speech to the needs of the audience.
5 Section 2: Analyzing Your Audience Your primary purpose, regardless of audience type, is to gain as many supporters as possible.Audience types:Supportive audience – friendlyMembers like you and what you have to sayEasiest audience to address because they are ready to support and promote your ideasUncommitted audience – neutralNeed information to make up their minds“convince me!” attitude
6 Indifferent audience – apathetic (they don’t care!) Captive audience – being forced to listen to youThink what you’re saying doesn’t apply to themShow them how it applies to them, shock them into listeningOpposed audience – confrontationalObjective should be to just get a fair hearingShow you are willing to compromiseUse a disclaimer – you’re not an expert, say what you’re not saying
7 Pop Quiz What is a “canned speech”? Name the 4 audience types. What does convincing your audience to “buy” something mean?
8 Section 3: Appealing to Your Audience Appeal has two different meanings:An urgent requestWhat is attractive or interesting about someone or somethingAristotle’s appeals:Logical appeal – solid reasoning and valid evidenceGreek word logosBe organizedOffer proof (specific evidence; something which establishes the truth)
9 When used correctly, logical appeal contains the following elements... Strong, clear claimsReasonable qualifiers for claimsWarrants that are validClear reasons for claimsStrong evidence (facts, statistics, personal experience, expert authority, interviews, observations, anecdotes)Acknowledgement of the oppositionWhen used poorly, logical appeals may include...Over-generalized claimsReasons that are not fully explained or supportedLogical fallaciesEvidence misused or ignoredNo recognition of opposing views
11 2. Emotional appeal – most people rely on their feelings at least as much as on their reasoning Greek word pathosAppeal to people’s feelings of love, anger, disgust, fear, compassion, patriotism, etc.
12 When done well, emotional appeals... Reinforce logical argumentsUse diction and imagery to create a bond with the audience in a human wayAppeal to idealism, beauty, humor, nostalgia, or pity (or other emotions) in a balanced wayAre presented in a fair mannerWhen used improperly, emotional appeals...Become a substitute for logic and reason (TV and magazine advertising often relies heavily on emotional rather than logical appeal)Uses stereotypes to pit one group of people against another (propaganda and some political advertising does this)Offers a simple, unthinking reaction to a complex problemTakes advantage of emotions to manipulate (through fear, hate, pity, prejudice, embarrassment, lust, or other feelings) rather than convince credibly
14 3. Ethical appeal – your listeners will “buy” what you’re selling because they trust you and your credibility (believability).Greek word ethosShow your goodwill – prove you care
15 Two essential elements of ethos: Honesty – exhibit personal integrity (strong sense of right and wrong). Audience believes in your reputation. You are sincere (mean what you say).Competency – capability (ability to get the job done). Solid work ethic, value being prepared. Usually have impressive credentials (qualifications).
16 When used correctly, the speaker is seen as... Well-informed about the topicConfident in his or her positionSincere and honestUnderstanding of the reader's concerns and possible objectionsHumane and considerateWhen used incorrectly, the speaker can be viewed as...Unfair or dishonestDistorting or misrepresenting information (biased)Insulting or dismissive of other viewpointsAdvocating intolerant ideas
17 Example of Ethical Appeal Mother TeresaFor over forty years she ministered to the poor, sick, orphaned, and dying, while guiding the Missionaries of Charity's expansion, first throughout India and then in other countries.By the 1970s she had become internationally famed as a humanitarian and advocate for the poor and helpless, due in part to a documentary, and book, Something Beautiful for God by Malcolm Muggeridge. She won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 for her humanitarian work. Mother Teresa's Missionaries of Charity continued to expand, and at the time of her death it was operating 610 missions in 123 countries, including hospices and homes for people with HIV/AIDS, leprosy and tuberculosis, soup kitchens, children's and family counseling programs, orphanages, and schools.
18 It is sometimes necessary to use all three types of appeal in order to be the most persuasive.