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Presentation on theme: "PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS & THEORIES OF EDUCATION"— Presentation transcript:


2 Philosophy ?  set of ideas about
The nature of reality The meaning of life Describe your current personal philosophy of education

What do you think the purpose of education is? To give knowledge To transmit culture To help people adapt to society To give religious education To provide practical/hands-on experience/training To provide learner/human-centered education (self-realization) etc (your view) … Why do some parents choose or reject certain schools? Philosophy influences daily educational life in many ways (curriculum, teacher role, assessment, teaching methods..)

IDEALISM ( Plato) GENERIC NOTIONS: Reality is an unchanging world of perfect ideas and universal truths (metaphysics) Reality is made up of absolute truths. (religious education programs) To Plato, truth is perfect and eternal and not found in the world matter. Meaning is in the ideals of life itself. We can’t rely on our senses as they deceive us. (Criticism) a “truth” sometimes is only in the eye of the beholder.

5 Knowledge is obtained when ideas are brought into consciousness through self-examination and discourse (epistemology) Searching for truth through Socratic questioning/ dialectic – questioning individual’s point of view (using inductive reasoning, authority lecturing) Wisdom of goodness; discipline, order, self-control; preservation of cultural heritage of the past (Axiology)

6 Goal of Education Educators are interested in the search for truth through ideas rather than through the examination of the false shadowy world of matter. They encourage students to search for truth as individuals. Education is transformation: ideas can change lives.

7 Role of Teacher Dealing with abstract notions through dialectic method & connecting analysis with action Active, posing questions, selecting materials and establishing an environment to ensure the desired outcomes. A role model to be imitated by ss

8 Methods of Instruction
T  active in ss’ learning Lecturing but particularly using dialectic approach Through questioning, ss  encouraged to discuss, analyze, synthesize, and apply what whey have read Ss  encouraged to work in groups/ individually on research projects, both oral and written

9 Curriculum Examining the roots of the contemporary problems in the past (great literature/classics etc) Education at any level should teach ss to think Subject-matter curriculum Back-to-basics approach in education

10 REALISM (Chisholm, Whitehead)
Generic Notions: Meaning comes through empirically proven facts. Reality is made up of natural laws, facts. The idea that reality is what it is and possesses an independent identity, regardless of the beliefs of the observer. We perceive the actually existing physical world.

11 Goal of Education Develop intellectual abilities To equip ss with information to understand current event (Tabula Rasa) Role of the Teacher having a solid grounding in science, maths, and the humanities. relying on test scores to place students (competency testing of students with various methods) readily adopting new technology teacher’s responsibility to teach skill+disciplined knowledge

12 T should be competent in a specific subject matter
T presenting ideas in a clear & consistent manner & demonstrating that there are definite ways to judge works of art, music, poetry and literature Enabling ss to learn objective methods of evaluating the works above

13 lecture, question &answer (formal ways of teaching
Methods of Instruction lecture, question &answer (formal ways of teaching inductive & scientific reasoning competency-based assessments as a way ensuring that ss learnt what they are being taught emphasis on critical reason aided by observation (our experiences) & experimentation emphasizing realistic novels such as Oliver Twist, Great Expectations, For Whom the Bell Tolls etc. to give live’s laws and principles and such novels are the keys for ss to reach the ideal world through material world stressing precision and accuracy in math, science, social studies and writing

14 curriculum consists of the basics – maths, science, reading etc.
attention is given to didactic & object studies in education (use of pictures, TV, videos in educational process) use of objects in education (Montessori) emphasis is on subject matter (highly organized & systematic in approach) CRITICISM: Empirical facts always subject to change.

15 EXISTENTIALISM (Kierkegaard, Jean-Paul Sartre, Nietzche)
Generic Notions Existentialists believe that individuals are placed on this earth alone & must make sense out of the chaos they encounter. Sartre  believed “existence precedes essence” – that is people must create themselves, and they must create their own meaning. Thus, individuals are in a state of constantly becoming, creating chaos and order, creating good and evil. The choice is up to the individual. In short, existentialism teaches that each person must simply live his/her life & by doing so creates his/her own values, almost as an afterthought. Reality for individuals is eternal. Each individual’s point of view is significant. Aim is not to provide standard people.

16 Goal of Education Existentialists
believe that education should focus on the needs of individuals, both cognitively and affectively. also believe that education should stress individuality. (Education should include discussion of the nonrational and rational world) Education is an activity liberating the individual from a chaotic, absurd world. Individuals are responsible of consequences. Individuals should be given credit for the creation of concepts like peace, truth, and justice. So, focus is on humans and their ideas.

17 So, good education is one that
Good education would encourage individuals to ask such questions: “Who am I?”, “Where am I going?”, “Why am I here?” So, good education is one that emphasizes individuality through intellectual journeys so that we can see and understand ourselves. helps individuals to examine the abnormal/corrupted side of life, the irrational as well as the good side. (life/death, wars, peace …) AIM: to make the world better

18 Role of the Teacher emphasizes individual choices (there is no common way of viewing world) T should understand his/her own ‘lived world’ to help ss achieve their best ‘lived worlds’. Both T and ss learn from each other & their relation is more friend to friend Ts must take risks; expose themselves to resistant ss; & work constantly to enable their students to become ‘wide awake’.

19 Introspection is useful in order to enable ss to become in touch with their worlds and to empower them to choose and act on their choices. Thus the role of teacher is an intensely personal one that carries with it a tremendous responsibility. Due to the greater experience & knowledge, it is the T’s responsibility to develop an educational environment that promotes awareness of the past and present, and of the future possibilities.

20 T helps ss become sensitive to human possibility and understand that they themselves are both necessarily and fully determined by the past (every present is conditioned by the past, but every present is pregnant with future possibilities for change and new direction – individuals can change future. Therefore, T should understand that the chief requirement is too help ss explore the world and open up new possibilities of the world for ss

21 Methods of Instruction
stressing individual freedom empowering ss to make choices about what and how they will learn Buber “I-thou approach” – S&T learn cooperatively from each other in an nontraditional, nonthreatening friendship. (posing questions, generating activities, and working together) Educational methods which help T in rediscovering the excitement of learning and opening up a whole new world of possibilities for ss. Ss become more articulate and capable of comprehension and self-expression with the help of teacher’s existentialist approach.

22 Curriculum stressing arts an literature, little emphasis is given on maths an science the humanities are considered in an existentialist curriculum because they deal with the essential aspects of human existence, such as the relations between people, the tragic side of human life as well as the happy, the absurdities as well as the meaning Through humanities, the existentialists try to awaken modern individuals to the dangers of being swallowed up by the megalopolis and runaway technology (wide awaken)

23 Existentialists do not have definite rules about what the curriculum should comprise. They believe that the S-in-situation making a choice should be the deciding factor. (Curriculum from the standpoint of the learner rather than as a collection of discrete subjects)

24 PRAGMATISM (Dewey and James)
Generic Notions Pragmatism is the philosophy that encourages people to find processes that work in order to achieve their desired ends. Reality is that everything changes. (Theme: the world is constantly changing and we have to adapt) They study the past but they are generally more interested in contemporary issues and in discovering solutions to problems in present-day terms They are action-oriented, experientially grounded, and will generally pose questions such as

25 “ What will work to achieve my desired ends?”
problem speculative thought action results  then Question: “Do the results achieved solve the problem?”  Then solution is valid.

26 Goal of Education Primary goal of education is growth.
Education is for life. Teaching ss how to live (standing on their feet) Education should not be locked upon merely as schooling and the acquisition of academic subject matter but as a part of life itself. Schools should balance the needs of the society and community on the one hand and the needs of the ss on the other.

27 To integrate children into not just any type of society, but a democratic one where cooperation and community are desired ends. Helping people direct, control and guide personal and social experience (self-actualization)

28 Schools should foster habits of thought, invention and initiative that will assist people in growing right direction toward democratic society Education should promote our true individualism (self-directed learning) Education has a moral influence and should pay a vital part in helping us become the kind of moral persons who are interested not only in promoting our own growth but also in promoting the growth of others.

29 Role of the Teacher applies democratic methods
classroom is a community of learners T  facilitator not authoritarian T encourages, offers suggestions, questions and helps plan and implements courses of study T  writes curriculum and must have a command of several disciplines to create and implement curriculum

30 Methods of Instruction
Problem solving, experiential learning, inquiry methods, field trips, projects (not all ss can learn in the same way – vary strategies) Learning in groups and individuality Formal instruction is abandoned (flexible methods are used) moveable chairs, freedom n class etc. Lockstep, rote memorization of traditional schools are replaced with individualized studies. Action-oriented education (activity-oriented approach to curriculum)

31 Curriculum Learner-centered curriculum
Pragmatist curriculum is composed of both process (experience) and content (knowledge) All academic and vocational disciplines in an integrated and connected way

32 Problem-centered learning/project method: such approaches to curriculum start with a central question, core/problem. Ss attack the problem in diverse ways according to interest and need. They work independently or in groups. They evaluate their growth and development. Child interest to be considered in curriculum. Varied needs, interests different curricula

33 ECLECTICISM There is a way of dealing with all various models
Eclecticism is not a philosophical system or model, but rather is the synthesizing and personal interpretation of various models to draw out the best components for yourself Thus, you pull the best from various models in any effort to build your own statement of personal philosophy.

34 Humanistic School show respect to ss consideration of ss’ needs, expectations, feelings, values accepting ss as they are active learning strategies conflict resolution incorporating whole class Meaning: Intellect distinguishes humans from animals What is Reality: Humans have potential and innate goodness Nature of Humanness: Autonomy, dignity, and freedom are sacred

35 Educational Aim: Individual potentiality; self-actualization
Educational Method: Facilitation; self-direction; team work Educational Content: Any curriculum is a vehicle for meeting needs Main Criticism: Important societal goals can be missed Key proponents: Maslow, Knowles, Elias/Merriam, Tough

36 Programs/Practices: Individualized instructional process learning projects sensitivity training teacher effective training active listening conflict resolution invitational learning values clarification moral education multiethnic educational approaches

37 Humanistic Approaches to English Language Teaching
Active Listening letting s’s to express her/his feelings & then paraphrasing what s/he has said No advice is given during active listening Conflict Resolution the involved people talk how problems emerge and how they can get rid of those problems/negative attitudes problem solving & meaningful learning strategies are used

38 Invitational Learning
communicating with the student by making her/him feel that s/he is ‘responsible, able and valuable’ procedure: know your s’s name have individual contact with each student show him you respect her/him be honest with her/him not take rejection by the s’s personality respect her/him as a human being

39 technique that clients
Values Clarification technique that clients identify how they feel or what they believe about something value that feeling or belief and, if valued, act on it aim: to raise s’s consciousness and values and help them to act on it. Ex: Do you think using drugs should be banned? What can you do?

40 related to character education & citizenship education
Moral Education related to character education & citizenship education aim: to help clients to develop more responsible behaviour Strategies: serving as role models who are always respectful and caring to others creating a family or community atmosphere so that clients feel worthwhile and care about people encouraging students to hold high academic & behavioral standards

41 THE PURPOSE OF SCHOOLS How can we solve the world’s problems?
revolutions wars education

42 Education School -Broad Specific -Take place anywhere, -particular location anytime, anyplace limited definition - behaviour change processes -place for education collective body of pupils -lack of formalization -formalized -no assessment processes - assessment -non-official official -lack of system -systemic -no need to certified person -certified person -no specific time limit for learning -compulsory period for attendance


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