Major philosophies of Education Philosophies PerennialismProgressivism EssentialismExistentialism SocialReconstructionism Fishbone organizer
Jigsaw and fishbone Groups of tables will be assigned one of the philosophies on the fishbone organizer. Using the handout, the group will become the experts on the assigned philosophy(jigsaw) The group will be responsible to summarize the philosophy on the flip chart paper and post their section of the fishbone onto the bigger fishbone as well as explain it to the rest of the group
Teacher – Centered Focus on the subject Student – Centered Focus on Self and Society Perennialism Essentialism Progressivism Existentialism Social Reconstructionism
Presentations to group When presenting the philosophy please explain it in terms of the “continuum” and why it fits in that section of the continuum. You will also identify key philosophers identified with this philosophy.
Perennealism views truth as a constant education is to ensure that students acquire knowledge of unchanging principles or great ideas great ideas have the best potential of solving the problems of any era curriculum should stress students’ growth in arts and sciences students should become “culturally literate” by studying the best, most significant works that humans have created aim to teach students to become critical thinkers
Perennealism Major Researchers * Robert Maynard Hutchins (1899-1977) * Mortimer Adler – organized the “great Books of the Western World” curriculum
Essentialism believe that human culture has a core of common knowledge that schools are obliged to transmit to students in a systematic, disciplined way believe that there is a body of essential knowledge and skills that all humans need to know schools should provide sound instruction that is aimed at preparing students to live life and comply with society’s accepted standards and need for order.
Progressivism education should be child centered curriculum should be derived from students’ interests effective teaching takes into account the whole child learning is active, not passive knowledge that is true in the present may not be true in the future so students need to be taught problem solving strategies the teacher is a guide or resource to help students learn about what
Existentialism focuses on the experiences of the individual helps learners focus on the meaning of their learning, their life, their truth emphasizes creative choice, the subjectivity of human experience, and concrete acts of human existence schools must allow students freedom of choice freedom has rules and respect for the freedom of others is essential schools should allow students to ask their own questions, conduct their own inquiries, and draw their own conclusions
Existentialism * Jean Paul Sarte ( 1905-1980) * Maxine Greene ( 1917 - )
Social Reconstructionism school should take the lead in changing or reconstructing society reaction to the cold war climate and threat after WWII schools should both transmit knowledge about the existing social order but also seek to reconstruct it as well belief in bringing the community into the classroom actively seek to create a world wide democracy
Social Reconstructionism * Theodore Brameld ( 1904-1987) * George Counts ( 1889-1974)
Psychological orientations In addition to the five major philosophical orientations, several psychological theories have formed the basis for teaching philosophies. Psychological theories are concerned with understanding the conditions that are associated with effective learning There are many psychological orientations that have influenced teaching philosophies such as humanistic psychology, behaviourism, and constructivism.
Humanistic Psychology emphasizes freedom, choice, awareness, personal responsibility *goal of education is individual self-actualization individuals control their own destinies through the application of their intelligence and reasoning teachers should not force students to learn but should create a climate of trust and respect that allows students to decide what and how they will learn teachers become learning facilitators
Behaviorasim based on the belief that desirable human behaviour can be the product of design, not accident our behaviour is determined by forces in our environ- ment that shape our behaviour learning conforms to a basic stimulus-response model ( operant conditioning) teachers can create learners who respond by 1. identifying the desired behaviours in concrete terms 2. establishing a procedure for recording specific behaviours and counting their frequencies 3. for each behaviour, identify an appropriate reinforcer 4. ensure that students receive the appropriate reinforcer as soon as possible after displaying the desired behaviour
Constructivism focus on processes of learning rather than on learning behaviour believe that students construct understanding of the material to be learned support student centered curriculum focus on mental processes and strategies that students use to lear see learning as an active, meaning-making process students are continuously involved in making sense of the things that happen around them teachers must realize that students’ learning is influenced by prior knowledge, experience, attitudes, and social; interactions
Seasonal partners Take out a sheet of extra paper On this sheet make a symbol for every season of the year and leave room to write someone’s name under the season (see next slide for model) Your task is to fill this sheet with four different partners who are not sitting at your table These will be your seasonal partners. You will be asked to meet with your seasonal partners during further discussions
Winter partner ______________________ Spring partner ____________________ Fall partner _________________ Summer partner ________________________ Seasonal partners
Personal beliefs Teaching and Learning Students Knowledge What is worth knowing Philosophical areas Philosophy of Education Teaching Behaviour
Personal beliefs Please find your “winter partner” With your “winter partner” discuss your beliefs about teaching and learning. Please find your “summer partner” With this partner please discuss your beliefs about what is worth knowing