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P A R T P A R T Regulation of Business Administrative Agencies The Federal Trade Commission Act and Consumer Protection Laws Antitrust: The Sherman Act 11 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Business Law, 13/e © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
P A R T P A R T Regulation of Business The Clayton Act, The Robinson-Patman Act, and Antitrust Exemptions and Immunities Employment Law Environmental Regulation 11 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Business Law, 13/e © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Environmental Regulation PA E TR HC 52 "Every human has a fundamental right to an environment of quality that permits a life of dignity and well-being." United Nations Conference on the Human Environment
Learning Objectives The development of environmental regulation Air pollution regulation Water pollution regulation Waste disposal regulation 52 - 5
Definition of Pollution Pollution is any substance in the environment that endangers human welfare Toxic substances in pollutants linked to: 52 - 6 Carcinogenesis Mutagenesis Teratogenesis Behavior disorders Bald eagle faced extinction due to mutagenic effect of DDT
Overview of Environmental Law U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created in 1970 to protect human health and the environmentEnvironmental Protection Agency Principal sources of environmental law: Civil (Common Law) Actions Federal Regulation State, Tribal, and Municipal Regulation International Treaties and Conventions 52 - 7
Civil Actions Person may be liable for nuisance if he used property in a manner that unreasonably interferes with another’s rights to use or enjoy their property Person may be liable for negligence or strict liability if he failed to use reasonable care toward a party whose injury was foreseeable and caused by the lack of reasonable care 52 - 8
Federal environmental policy is achieved by statutes implemented by federal, state, and tribal agencies, and programs designed to regulate the environment within each respective jurisdiction Litigation, injunction, and penalties (civil & criminal) are possible consequences of violating environmental laws Federal Regulation 52 - 9
Nature of Environmental Law Most environmental laws are implemented through permitting programs that establish pollution limits Thus, environmental laws do not prevent pollution, but set pollution limits and create a system to compensate for environmental harm Subject of laws: health and safety, pollution, conservation efforts, environmental damage 52 - 10
Test Your Knowledge True=A, False = B Pollution is any substance in the environment that endangers human welfare. States and Indian tribes may enact and enforce environmental laws. Environmental law prevents pollution. Violating an environmental law may result in a civil penalty, but cannot be a crime. 52 - 11
Test Your Knowledge Multiple Choice The sources of environmental law include: (a) Federal legislation enacted by Congress (b) Federal agency regulations (c) State and tribal environmental law enacted pursuant to state and tribal legislative bodies (d) All of the above (e) All of the above plus international treaties 52 - 12
Thought Questions Why is environmental law necessary? Is environmental health a human right? 52 - 13
OVERVIEW OF FEDERAL ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS 52 - 14
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) NEPA requires federal agencies to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) for major federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment EIS must analyze the impact of proposed action on environment, expected adverse effects, practical and feasible alternative methods, any irreversible effects possible 52 - 15
Air Pollution Programs Primary law: Clean Air Act Goal: improve National Ambient Air Quality through standards (NAAQS) Focus is controlling pollution from mobile sources and stationary sources by issuing permits to polluters 52 - 16 “End-of-pipe” air emissions at paper mill
Each state must develop state implementation plan (SIP) for meeting national ambient air quality standards State environmental agencies issue permits to companies that emit pollutants specifying type of pollutants allowed and amount Act enforced by agency action and citizen suits against polluters who violate law Clean Air Act Implementation 52 - 17
International Environmental Law The Clean Air Act specifically supports U.S. obligations under the Montreal Protocol, an international agreement to reduce air pollution and ozone-depleting substances 52 - 18 Pulp and paper mill
Water Pollution Programs Wetlands, Ocean, and Coastal Zone Pollution Groundwater & Drinking Water Protection Wastewater 52 - 19 Acid leachate pond near mining operation
Primary Statute: Clean Water Act Clean Water Act (CWA) goals: Ensure that navigable water is safe for drinking, fish & wildlife protection, and recreational use Eliminate or limit discharge of pollutants into coastal and navigable inland waterways 52 - 20
For non-point and point sources, EPA sets CWA water quality criteria or standards Every industrial or municipal facility must apply for a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit to discharge pollutants into inland waterways or oceans Generally, state agencies establish standards for state water bodies and issue permits Clean Water Act Standards 52 - 21
Wetlands Section 404 of the Clean Water Act (CWA) protects wetlands by requiring a permit from the Army Corps of Engineers before dredged or fill material may be discharged into waters of the United States 52 - 22 Endangered green pitcher plant found in some southern wetlands
Primary Laws: FIFRA TSCA RCRA CERCLA Land Pollution 52 - 23 Iron Mountain Superfund site in California caused by acid mine drainage
Pesticides & Toxic Substances Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) r egulates use of pest control chemicals, from food growth to food packaging, to minimize presence of pesticides in consumable foods Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requires anyone planning to sell or market chemicals to first determine effect on human health and the environment 52 - 24
In a cradle to grave regulatory system, RCRA and CERCLA regulate storage, disposal, and remediation of hazardous substances Resource Conservation and Recovery Act grants EPA power to regulate the monitoring, transporting, storage, treatment, and disposal of solid waste and hazardous waste Tracking of substances from creation of waste through disposal or treatment Waste Disposal Laws 52 - 25
CERCLA 52 - 26 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, or Superfund, authorizes EPA to ensure clean-up and remediation of hazardous waste sites and assign liability for clean-up costs to any potentially responsible party (PRP) Current owners or operators, former owners or operators, arrangers for treatment or disposal of hazardous substances, and transporters
Conservation Efforts 52 - 27 A number of laws, such as the Endangered Species Act, attempt to identify, list, and protect threatened or endangered species See U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service webpageU.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) prohibits trade in threatened or endangered species, whether animal, plants, or parts of animals or plants Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species
Environmental Management Partly because of the regulatory web and partly for corporate social responsibility, many companies implement an environmental management system (EMS) 52 - 28 Examples include ISO 14001, Responsible Care, and Smart WoodISO 14001Responsible CareSmart Wood
Test Your Knowledge True=A, False = B NEPA applies only to federal agencies. The Clean Air Act applies to mobile and stationary sources of pollution. One goal of the Clean Water Act is to eliminate or limit discharge of pollutants into navigable waterways. Section 404 of the Clean Water Act (CWA) protects wetlands. 52 - 29
Test Your Knowledge True=A, False = B Both RCRA and CERCLA establish a cradle to grave regulatory system for hazardous waste. Retroactive laws are always unconstitutional. Only the U.S. EPA may enforce the Clean Air Act or Clean Water Act. RCRA requires companies to track and monitor hazardous waste from creation through disposal or treatment. 52 - 30
Test Your Knowledge Multiple Choice An environmental impact statement must analyze: (a) The impact of the proposed action on the environment (b) Any expected adverse effects of the action (c) Practical and feasible alternative methods (d) All of the above (e) Both A and B only 52 - 31
Test Your Knowledge Multiple Choice A potentially responsible party may be: (a) A current owner of the facility (b) A former owner of the facility (c) The plant manager who arranged for the disposal of hazardous substances from the facility (d) The company that operates the facility (e) All of the above 52 - 32
Thought Question Given technological improvements in alternative energy (wind or solar power, biofuels), does a company have a social responsibility to use the best available technology? 52 - 33 Anaerobic bioreactors for sludge digestion and methane production in Kiel, Germany
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