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What is a Mineral?.

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Presentation on theme: "What is a Mineral?."— Presentation transcript:

1 What is a Mineral?

2 What is a mineral? Solid Not liquid, gas, or plasma

3 What is a mineral? Naturally-occurring Not man-made

4 What is a mineral? Inorganic Never alive

5 What is a mineral? Fixed chemical composition: an element or a compound

6 What is a mineral? Crystal structure: atoms or molecules in an orderly pattern

7 Most minerals are compounds
Quartz: silicon and oxygen SiO2 Most abundant in earth’s crust Halite: sodium and chloride NaCl

8 Examples of minerals Halite (rock salt) Mica Quartz

9 Not minerals

10 There are more than 2,000 kinds of minerals, but fewer than 20 are common minerals that form rock
10 minerals make up 90% of the earth’s crust

11 2 Main Types of Minerals Silicates and Non-Silicates

12 Silicates Contain atoms of silicon (Si) and oxygen (O)
Forms a tetrahedron Many contain one or more different kinds of atoms Ex. Feldspar – silicon and oxygen with potassium SiO2 - Quartz 96% of the crust is made of silicates

13 Non-Silicates: 6 Groups

14 Native Minerals Made up of single elements Gold Copper Sulfur

15 Halides Cation: K, Na, or Ca with an Anion: Cl or F – Halite (NaCl)

16 Sulfides Contain an S atom Ex: Pyrite (FeS2) Fools Gold

17 Carbonates Contains CO3 as part of the compound
Ex: Malachite Cu2CO3(OH)2

18 Sulfates Contains SO4 as part of the compound Ex: Gypsum CaSO4·2H2O

19 Oxides Contains O atom except for silicates, carbonates, and sulfates
Ex: Hematite Fe2O3

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