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What is a Mineral.

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Presentation on theme: "What is a Mineral."— Presentation transcript:

1 What is a Mineral

2 What is a Mineral? A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid with a specific chemical composition and a definite crystalline structure.

3 Characteristics of a Mineral
1. Solid 2. Naturally occurring 3. Inorganic (not made by living things) 4. Definite chemical composition 5. Definite crystal structure.

4 Crystal Systems There are six crystal systems: Cubic Tetragonal
Hexagonal Orthrombic Monoclinic Triclinic

5 Ways that minerals can form
Minerals can form in one of two ways: From magma From a solution

6 Minerals from Magma Magma is the molten or melted material found beneath Earth’s surface. Differences in density will force some magma up toward the Earth’s surface.

7 Minerals from Magma Continued
If the magma cools quickly, the mineral crystals will be small. If the magma cools slowly, the mineral crystals will be large.

8 Minerals from Solutions
Minerals can form from solutions in one of two different ways: Crystallization from a supersaturated solution. Evaporation of liquid from a supersaturated solution.

9 Mineral Groups There are about 3000 minerals that can be found in the Earth’s crust. Only 30 of these minerals are common. Most common minerals are referred to as rock forming minerals.

10 Mineral Groups Continued
Most of the minerals found in the Earth’s crust are made of 8 common elements 1. O 5. Ca 2. Si 6. Na 3. Al 7. K 4. Fe 8. Mg

11 Mineral Groups Continued
The mineral groups we will concentrate on in this class are as follows: Silicates Carbonates Oxides Sulfides Sulfates Halides Native Elements

12 Silicates Silicates are compounds that contain silicon and oxygen.
Make up approximately 96% of the minerals found. Feldspar and Quartz are silicates.

13 Carbonates Carbonates are minerals composed of one or more metallic elements with carbonate. Carbonate = CO3 Calcite, dolomite and rhodochrosite are carbonates.

14 Carbonates Continued Carbonates are the primary minerals find in rocks such as limestone, coquina, and marble.

15 Oxides Oxides are compounds of oxygen and a metal.
Hematite and Magnetite are common iron oxides.

16 Sulfides Sulfides contain sulfur plus one or more other elements.
Pyrite is an example of a sulfide.

17 Sulfates Sulfates contain the compound sulfate. Sulfate = SO4
Anhydrite is an example of a sulfate.

18 Halides Halides are made up of chloride or fluoride combined with calcium, sodium or potassium. Halite is an example of a halide.

19 Native element minerals
Native element minerals are made up of one element only. Silver and Copper are examples of native element minerals.

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