May 22, 2014 Why do you think a mother’s health is important to a fetus during pregnancy?
How does a woman know she is pregnant? Signs that a female might be pregnant… Her period is missing or absent. Period is lighter or different than usual. Breasts are tender or sore. Nausea or vomiting. Changes in appetite. Frequent urination. Tiredness.
How can a woman find out she is pregnant? Ways to be tested for pregnancy… Urine Test Pelvic Exam Blood Test
As a fetus develops during pregnancy, special care needs to be taken to ensure the fetus and mother remain healthy.
fertilization implantation embryo fetus prenatal care fetal alcohol syndrome
The Very Beginning A single cell, formed from one egg and one sperm, can grow into a complex human being.
The Very Beginning The human body begins as one microscopic cell that is formed by fertilization, also known as conception. Fertilization The union of a male sperm cell and a female egg cell
The Very Beginning The cell that results from fertilization is called a zygote. The zygote begins to divide and travel through the fallopian tube.
Within a few days, implantation occurs. Implantation The process by which the zygote attaches to the uterine wall
The Very Beginning After about two weeks, the zygote becomes an embryo. Embryo A cluster of cells that develops between the third and eighth week of pregnancy
The Very Beginning The embryo is called a fetus after about eight weeks. Fetus Group of developing cells
The Growing Embryo Eventually, the embryo forms three layers of tissue. One layer becomes the respiratory and digestive systems. A second layer develops into muscles, bones, blood vessels, and skin. The third layer forms the nervous system, sense organs, and mouth.
The Growing Embryo The amniotic sac is a thin, fluid-filled membrane that surrounds and protects the developing embryo. The umbilical cord is a ropelike structure that connects the fetus with the mother’s placenta.
The Growing Embryo The placenta is thick, blood-rich tissue that lines the walls of the uterus during pregnancy and nourishes the embryo.
Multiple Births In most cases, fertilization results in one embryo. Twins, triplets, and quadruplets, known as multiple births, can result when multiple embryos are formed.
Multiple Births Identical Twins Fraternal Twins Single zygote that splits into two separate embryos. Identical traits and the same gender. Two eggs are released and are fertilized by two different sperm. Can be different genders.
A Healthy Pregnancy A pregnant female can maintain the health of her fetus in many different ways. Seeing a doctor regularly throughout the pregnancy will provide a new mother with the care and nutritional advice she needs.
A Healthy Pregnancy A pregnant woman needs prenatal care to ensure her health and that of her growing baby. Prenatal care The steps that a pregnant female can take to provide for her own health and the health of her baby
What to Eat While Pregnant Pregnant females are encouraged to take prenatal vitamins to provide a balance of nutrients.
What to Eat While Pregnant Calcium helps build bones and teeth, nerves, muscles, and heart. Protein helps form muscle and other tissue. Iron makes red blood cells and supplies oxygen to cells. Vitamin A helps in the growth of cells and bones and in eye development. Vitamin B complex aids in forming the nervous system. Folic acid is critical in development of central nervous system.
What to Eat While Pregnant Females at a healthy weight before becoming pregnant can gain between 25 and 35 pounds during pregnancy.
Fitness During Pregnancy Physical activity can help a pregnant female maintain a healthy weight during pregnancy. Before starting any exercise program, an expectant mother should discuss the importance of exercise and exercise programs with her health care provider.
A Healthy Fetus Expectant mothers should avoid tobacco, alcohol, drugs, and environmental hazards. An expectant mother should avoid substances that can harm her and her fetus.
Avoid Tobacco Use Exposure to secondhand smoke increases the risk of having a low-birth- weight baby. Smoking may also affect growth, mental development, and behavior after a child is born.
Avoid Alcohol Use Fetal alcohol syndrome can cause learning, memory, and attention problems, as well as visual and hearing impairments. Fetal alcohol syndrome A group of alcohol-related birth defects that includes both physical and mental problems
Avoid Drug Use Prescription or over-the-counter medications should be used only with the approval of a doctor or other health care professional. In some cases, drug use may lead to the premature birth of the infant, or even a miscarriage.
Complications of Pregnancy A pregnancy may have an unexpected outcome. Most pregnancies result in the birth of a healthy baby.
Complications of Pregnancy The complications of pregnancy can result in a cesarean delivery, made through an incision in the mother’s abdomen. premature birth, at least three weeks before the due date. miscarriage, the spontaneous expulsion of a fetus before the twentieth week of pregnancy.
Childbirth Birth occurs in three steps. Step 1: Labor Step 2: Delivery Step 3: Afterbirth
Childbirth Step 1: Labor. Muscle contractions of the uterus become regular, stronger, and closer together. This causes the cervix— the opening to the uterus—to dilate, or widen.
Childbirth Step 2: Delivery. Once the cervix is fully dilated, the baby passes through the birth canal and emerges from the mother’s body. The baby takes its first breath and cries to clear its lungs of amniotic fluid.
Childbirth Step 3: Afterbirth. The placenta is still attached to the baby by the umbilical cord. Contractions, although weaker, will continue until the placenta (now called the afterbirth) is pushed from the mother’s body.
After You Read Reviewing Facts and Vocabulary An embryo is a cluster of cells that forms between the third and eighth week of pregnancy. This group of cells is called a fetus after the eighth week. 1.Describe an embryo and a fetus.
After You Read Reviewing Facts and Vocabulary 2.What is the difference between identical and fraternal twins? Identical twins form when one fertilized egg splits into two different embryos. Fraternal twins form when two eggs are fertilized by two different sperm. These individuals are not identical.
After You Read Reviewing Facts and Vocabulary 3.What is the relationship between the placenta and the umbilical cord? The umbilical cord connects the fetus to the placenta.