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Blastocyst Development

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Presentation on theme: "Blastocyst Development"— Presentation transcript:


2 Blastocyst Development
Zygote (fertilized egg) marks beginning of development Zygote develops into blastocyst Ball of cells ~ 5 days after fertilization Hormones (progesterone) released by corpus luteum help zygote to develop and keep the uterine lining thick

3 Gastrula Development Blastocyst implants into endometrium (lining of uterus) Continues development  Gastrula Ectoderm becomes skin & nervous system Mesoderm becomes muscles, blood, & internal tissues Endoderm becomes digestive & internal organs

4 Embryo Development Blastocyst  Gastrula  Embryo
Embryonic membranes protect & nourish embryo Endometrium becomes placenta Connects mother and embryo Umbilical cord develops Connects embryo to placenta Blood vessels from placenta to baby Mom’s & baby’s blood do not circulate together! Can have 2 different blood types Nutrients move by diffusion Amniotic sac cushions embryo Amnion = membrane surrounding baby Amniotic fluid = “water” surrounding baby “water breaks” before baby is born (membrane ruptures and fluid escapes)

5 Fetal Development Zygote  Blastocyst  Gastrula  Embryo  Fetus
Fully formed fetus takes weeks to develop Human pregnancies are divided into trimesters

6 Fetal Development First trimester (weeks 1-12):
Body plan & early development Heartbeat detected after week 5 Arms and legs begin to develop Heart, brain, pancreas, kidneys, liver begin to form Eyelids form then fuse for iris to develop Hair, fingernails, and toenails develop External sex organs show sex of fetus (at end of trimester)

7 Fetal Development Second trimester (weeks 13-27):
Fetus more active & developed Most joints and bones have started to form Skin is protected by fine air and waxy substance Sleep cycles more regular Eyes open & blink Eyebrows/eyelashes form Fetus breathes amniotic fluid (strengthens lungs) First movements felt by mother

8 Fetal Development Third trimester (weeks 28-40): All organs fully form
Fetus responds to light & sound (from outside uterus) Fetus has periods of dreaming Fine body hair thins, scalp hair grows in Bones grow & harden Synapses between neurons form in huge numbers Lungs complete development Fetus turns head-down (ready to exit)

9 Birth Baby is upside down Feet first = breech position (not good)
Cesarian-section (“C-section”) Labor Muscles help to thin & open cervix Muscle contractions push baby out After birth- placenta detaches from uterus and exits


11 The mother affects the fetus, and pregnancy affects the mother.
The fetus depends on the mother for all its nutrition. mother's diet must support fetal health mother must avoid raw foods & toxic chemicals

12 Pregnancy affects mother
increase in Calories and body weight pregnancy hormones affects homeostasis regular medical checkups needed

13 Review Define: blastocyst, gastrula, embryo
Explain the functions of the following: Placenta Umbilical cord Amniotic sac List at least 2 milestones for each trimester of pregnancy. What might happen if the baby’s head is not upside down when ready for birth? Give 2 examples of how a mother and fetus affect one another. Why might a pregnant woman need to be concerned about what she eats and/or drinks? A baby is born 12 weeks premature (early). The organs are developed, but the baby must breathe using a ventilator. Explain why this might be necessary.

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