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Information Technology, The Internet, and You

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1 Information Technology, The Internet, and You
Chapter 1 Information Technology, The Internet, and You

2 Key Words & Terms application software: 应用软件 basic application: 基本应用软件
communication device: 通讯设备 compact disc(CD): 紧凑格式盘 computer competency: 计算机技能 connectivity: 连通, 连通性 data: 数据 database file: 数据库文件 desktop computer: 台式计算机 digital versatile (video) disc: DVD, 数字式通用盘 document file: 文档文件 end user: 终端用户 floppy disk: 软盘

3 Key Words & Terms handheld computer: 手提电脑 hard disk: 硬盘 hardware: 硬件
high definition (hi def): 高清(高清晰度) information: 信息 information system: 信息系统 information technology (IT) : 信息技术 input device: 输入设备 Internet: 互联网 keyboard: 键盘 mainframe computer: 大型机 memory: 内存 microcomputer: 微型计算机 microprocessor: 微处理器

4 Key Words & Terms minicomputer: 小型机
midrange computer: 中型机 minicomputer: 小型机 modem (modulator & demodulator): 调制解调器 monitor: 监视器 mouse: 鼠标 network: 网络 notebook computer: 笔记本电脑 operating system (OS): 操作系统 optical disk: 光盘 output device: 输出设备 palm computer: 掌上电脑 personal digital assistant (PDA): 个人数字化助理 presentation file: 演示文稿 primary storage: 主存 printer: 打印机

5 Key Words & Terms procedures: 过程/用户文档 program: 程序
random access memory (RAM): 可读写内存 secondary storage device: 辅助存储设备 software: 软件 specialized application: 专用应用软件 supercomputer: 超级计算机 system software: 系统软件 system unit: 系统单元 tablet PC: 带手写板的笔记本电脑 utility: 工具软件 Web: 网 wireless revolution: 无线(通讯)革命 worksheet file: 工作表文件

6 Competencies (Page 1 of 2)
Explain the five parts of an information system: people, procedures, software, hardware, and data. Distinguish between system software and application software. Discuss the three kinds of system software programs. Distinguish between basic and specialized application software. Identify the four types of computers and the four type of microcomputers. Page 2

7 Competencies (Page 2 of 2)
Describe the different types of computer hardware including the system unit, input, output, storage, and communication devices. Define data and describe document, worksheet, database, and presentation files. Explain computer connectivity, the wireless revolution, and the Internet. Page 2

8 Introduction Computer competency refers to acquiring computer-related skills Microcomputers are common tools in all areas of life New forms of learning have developed New ways to communicate, to find people with similar interests, and to buy goods are available. To be competent with IT, a comprehension of the five parts an information system are critical (refer to the ensuing slides) Page 3

9 Five Parts of an Information System
People Procedures Software Hardware Data Define an information system Some students may think of a system as pertaining to just the hardware Remind them that a microcomputer is part of an information system To be a competent end user (Key Term), one must understand the essentials of IT Note that IT stands for information technology (Key Term) Page 4

10 People Most important part of any system Contact is … Direct Indirect
Computer uses Business & Entertainment Education & Medicine People are the most important part of an information system Our lives are touched everyday by computers- many time the contact is direct and obvious, such as creating documents using a word processing program or when connecting to the internet. Other times, it isn’t as obvious and is much more indirect as shown in a couple of the pictures Have students give examples of how they use computer applications throughout the day Some examples are: Instant messaging Web-based applications Personal Web site Virus protection TV tuners and video clips Digital photography Music Home networking Spyware Job opportunities Refer to Figure 1-3 on pg. 7 in text provides a partial list of applications that students can use to “Make IT work for You” Page 6

11 Software AKA Programs Two major kinds of software System Software
Application Software Software is another name for programs Programs are instructions that tell the computer how to process data into the form you want Emphasize differences between application and systems software System software Operating system (Key Term) Utilities Device drivers (Key Term) Application software General-purpose (Key Term) Special purpose Page 7

12 System Software A collection of programs-not a single program
Enables the application software to interact with the hardware “Background software” that helps the computer manage its own resources System Not a single program A collection of programs Two best known Operating systems are: Windows XP Mac OS X Utilities Service programs (key term) Performs tasks related to managing computer resources Device drivers Application Return Page 8

13 Application Software End-user software Two major categories
Basic Application or General purpose Specialized applications “End-user” software – these are the types of programs you have to know to be considered computer competent An example of a basic application is a browser to navigate, explore and find information (Key Term) on the Internet Two major categories General purpose - basic programs; “off-the-shelf” Specialized application – narrow focus on specific disciplines and occupations Page 9

14 Hardware - Types of Computers
Supercomputers Mainframe computers Minicomputers (also known as mid-range computers) Microcomputers There are four types of computers Supercomputers (key term) – the most powerful; special high-capacity computers used in very large corporations Mainframe computers (key term) – are capable of great processing speed and data storage; occupy specially wired, air-conditioned rooms; insurance companies use to process information about millions of policyholders Minicomputers (key term) - known as midrange computers (key term), are refrigerator sized machines used in medium sized companies or departments in large companies Microcomputers (key term) – least powerful but most widely used and fastest-growing type of computers Desktop (key term) Laptop or notebook (key term) Tablet PC (key term) Handheld computers (Key Term) Palm computers (Key Term) Personal digital assistants (PDA) (Key Term) Page 10

15 Microcomputer Types Desktop Notebook or laptop Tablet PC Handheld
Microcomputers Desktop Laptop or notebook Tablet PC Handheld computers Palm computers Personal digital assistants (PDA) Page 11

16 Desktop Computers Desktop computers are small enough to fit on top of or alongside a desk yet are too big to carry around Small but not a laptop Have students begin discussing the type(s) of a desktop computer (key term) they are using or familiar with Return Page 11

17 Notebook or Laptop Computers
Notebook computers, also known as laptop computers, are portable, lightweight, and fit into most briefcases Notebook computers are also known as laptops Have students begin discussing the type(s) of notebook or laptop computer(s) they are using or familiar with Return Page 11

18 Tablet PC A tablet PC is a type of notebook computer that accepts your handwriting. This input is digitized and converted to standard text that can be further processed by programs such as a word processor. Accepts handwriting Ask students if they are familiar with tablet PCs Return Page 11

19 Handheld Are the smallest and are also known as palm computers. These systems typically combine pen input, writing recognition, personal organizational tools, and communications capabilities. Personal digital assistants (PDA’s) are the most widely used handheld computer. Personal digital assistants (PDA) are the most widely used handheld computer Ask students if they are familiar with palm computers or PDAs Page 11

20 Microcomputer Hardware
Four basic categories of equipment: System Unit Input/Output Secondary Storage Communication System Unit is the container that houses most of the electronic components that make up a computer system. Input/Output – Input devices (key term) translate data and programs from a form humans understand to a form computers can process; Secondary Storage – Unlike memory (key term), secondary storage holds data and programs even after the electrical power has been turned off—examples of secondary storage include USB drives, hard drives, optical drives and floppy drives Communication – one computer communicating with another computer or other computer systems using communication devices (key term) such as a modem Page 11

21 System Unit Two important components Microprocessor Memory Return
Systems unit-container houses most of the electronic components that make up a computer system The microprocessor controls and manipulates data to produce information Memory holds data and program instructions for processing the data. It also holds the processed information before it is output Memory is sometimes referred to as temporary storage because its contents will typically be lost if the electrical power to the computer is disrupted Return Page 12

22 Input/Output Devices Common input devices are the keyboard and the mouse Common output devices are printers and monitors No additional notes Return Page 12

23 Secondary Storage Unlike memory, secondary storage holds data and programs even if electrical power is not available The most important types of secondary media are floppy, hard, and optical disks Floppy disks are used to store and transport data from one computer to another. Floppy disks are named as such due to the fact that data is stored on a very thin flexible, or floppy, plastic disk Hard disks are typically used to store programs and very large data files. Hard disk have a much larger capacity and are able to access information much faster than floppy disks Optical disks use laser technology and have the greatest capacity. Examples of optical disks include: compact discs (CDs) (Key Term) digital versatile discs (DVDs) (Key Term) high definition (hi def) (Key Term) discs Return Page 13

24 Communications Communication Devices provide microcomputers with the ability to communicate with other computer systems across the globe The modem is the most widely used communication device Modems modify telephone communications into a form that can be processed by a computer Modems also modify computer output into a form that can be transmitted across standard telephone lines No Instructor Notes Provided Page 13

25 Data Raw, unprocessed facts Processed data becomes information
Stored electronically in files Document files Worksheet files Database files Presentation files Check notes with book Used to describe facts about something Contained in files for documents, worksheets, and databases Document files (key term) - usually created by word processors Worksheet files (key term) - electronic spreadsheets Database files (key term) - electronic database management programs Presentation files (key term) - electronic slide shows Page 14

26 Document Files Created by word processors to save documents such as memos, term papers, and letters Word processors are used to prepare written documents Create text-based documents One of the most flexible and widely used software tools Features to make entering, editing, and formatting documents easy Return Page 14

27 Worksheet Files Created by electronic spreadsheets to analyze things like budgets and to predict sales Files created by spreadsheet programs Uses functions and formulas to analyze numeric data Manipulates numeric data Features include workbooks, worksheets, cells, ranges, text and numeric entries, formulas, functions, charts, recalculation, and what-if analysis Return Page 14

28 Database Files Typically created by database management programs to contain highly structured and organized data A database management system (DBMS) or database manager is a program that sets up, or structures, a database Files created by database management programs Organizes data for efficient retrieval Is the electronic equivalent of a file cabinet It also provides tools to enter, edit, and retrieve data from the database Return Page 14

29 Presentation Files Created by presentation graphics programs to save presentation materials. For example, a file might contain audience handouts, speaker notes, and electronic slides. Used to create a variety of visual objects to create attractive, visually interesting presentations Features include slides, AutoContent wizard, color schemes, slide layouts, special effects, master slides, and design templates Presentation files may contain audience handouts, speaker notes, and electronic slides Page 15

30 Connectivity, the Wireless Revolution, and the Internet
Sharing of information Wireless communication is becoming popular Computer networks Connected communication system of computers Largest network is the Internet Connectivity is the capability of your microcomputer to share information with other computers Wireless /mobile communication devices are more popular than ever A network is central to the concept of connectivity Ask students questions about the Internet. Here are some facts: No one owns the Internet There is no Internet, Inc. The Internet is a network of networks The Word Wide Web (key term) (WWW) provides multimedia interface to resources on the Internet Page 15

31 Careers In IT For a complete listing of careers, visit keyword: careers Page 16

32 Discussion Questions (Page 1 of 2)
Explain the five parts of an information system. What part do people play in this system? What is system software? What kinds of programs are included in system software? Define and compare basic and specialized application software. Describe some different types of basic applications. Describe some types of specialized applications. Have students turn to the end of Chapter 1 in their textbooks to view the same “Open-Ended” questions/statements Page 24

33 Discussion Questions (Page 2 of 2)
Describe the different types of computers. What is the most common type? What are the types of microcomputers? What is connectivity? How are the wireless revolution and connectivity related? What is a computer network? What is the Internet? What is the Web? Have students turn to the end of Chapter 1 in their textbooks to view the same “Open-Ended” questions/statements Page 24

34 The End of Chapter 1

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