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Chapter 35 Reading Quiz What are the three basic plant organs?

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1 Chapter 35 Reading Quiz What are the three basic plant organs?
Tracheids and vessel elements are cells that make up what vascular tissue? Which one of the three basic plant cell types is used mostly for storage? How long do annual plants live for? What is the general name for a perpetually embryonic tissue?

2 1. List the characteristics of an angiosperm, and distinguish between the two classes.
Have flowers and fruit to help reproduction Roots, stems, and leaves Xylem & phloem Monocotyledons (monocots)  have a single cotyledon Dicotyledons (dicots)  have two cotyledons Also have several other structural differences 


4 2. Describe the importance of root systems and shoot systems to plants and explain how they work together. They are both evolutionary adaptations for living on land Roots depend on shoots for synthesizing sugar and other organic nutrients Shoots depend on roots for the water and minerals that they absorb 


6 3. Distinguish between xylem and phloem, and explain how taproot and fibrous root systems differ.
Xylem  conveys water & dissolved minerals from the roots to the shoots Phloem  transports food made in the leaves to the roots and developing leaves and fruits Taproot  one large vertical root, most dicots (carrot) Fibrous  mat of threadlike roots that spread out, most monocots (grasses) 


8 4. Overview the setup of a stem’s anatomy.
Nodes  points where leaves are attached Internodes  stem segments between nodes Axillary bud  angle between leaf & stem, potential branch shoot Terminal bud  the tip of a young shoot, lots of developing leaves, nodes, & internodes Apical dominance  inhibition of axillary bud growth by terminal bud dominance (apex) 


10 5. Overview a leaf’s anatomy.
Stalk is called the petiole (only in some) Flattened blade Leaf shape and venation varies between monocots & dicots Simple, compound, and doubly compound leaves Leaves are modified to the environment ex: cactus spines, ice plant leaves 


12 6. Distinguish between parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma cells.
Parenchyma  relatively unspecialized, flexible cells; used for storage generally, carry on plant’s metabolic functions (apple) Collenchyma  unevenly thickened cell walls for support in the plant (celery stalk) Sclerenchyma  specialized for support, cell walls are hardened with lignin 1. Fibers – long & slender, linen fibers 2. Sclerids – irregular, pears & fruit pits 



15 7. Diagram and describe the two types of water-conducting xylem cells.
Tracheids – long thin cells with tapered ends; water moves through pits; function in support as well Vessel elements – wider, shorter, thinner-walled, less tapered; aligned perforated end to perforated end forming little pipes which water flows through 


17 8. Describe the food-conducting cells of phloem.
Phloem  composed of sieve tube members each associated with a companion cell These are tubes that lack organelles and therefore are assisted by the companion cells that have a nucleus, ribosomes, etc. 


19 9. Distinguish among the dermal, vascular, and ground tissue systems.
Dermal  epidermis of plant, includes root hairs, cuticle, everything that you see Vascular  the xylem & phloem of the plant’s tissues (usually in the center) Ground  makes up the bulk of the plant’s tissues, mostly parenchyma, found mostly between the vascular & dermal tissues 


21 10. Define and give examples of annual, biennial, and perennial plants.
Annuals  plants that complete their life cycles (from germination – flowering – seed production – death) in one year or less ex: crops (legumes & cereals) Biennials  life spans two years; 1st is vegetative growth, 2nd is for flowering ex: beets & carrots Perennials  plants that live for many years and can continuously grow ex: trees, shrubs, some grasses 


23 11. Describe the variety of meristems that exist on a plant.
Meristems  perpetually embryonic tissues Apical meristems  locates at tips of roots and in buds of shoots, supply cells for length (called primary growth) Lateral meristems  cylinders of dividing cells along the length of roots & shoots, allow for a progressive “thickening” called secondary growth (woody plants) 


25 12. Briefly overview the growth and tissues of roots, describing the different zones.
The zone of cell division includes the primary meristems: the protoderm (dermal tissues), procambium (vascular tissues), and ground meristem (ground tissues) The zone of elongation is responsible for pushing the root meristems ahead The zone of maturation is where the three tissues produced by the primary growth complete their differentiation 


27 13. Briefly overview the growth and tissues of stems.
The apical meristem also gives rise to the three primary meristems Axillary buds, nodes, and internodes all develop very close together and elongate as the plant tip grows out The vascular tissue of the stem runs the entire length and is surrounded by ground tissue – the organization depends on whether the plant is a monocot (bundles throughout) or a dicot (bundles arranged in a ring) 

28 14. Describe tissue organization in leaves.
The leaf is covered by epidermis and by a waxy cuticle Stomata are located throughout and are tiny pores flanked by guard cells which control the size of the opening Stomata are for gas exchange and transpiration (evaporation of water) Mesophyll is the ground tissue, mostly parenchyma cells and the location of the chloroplasts The veins in a leaf are the vascular tissue 


30 15. Describe secondary growth in plants.
Indicates growth of the stem diameter Two meristems do the job: 1. Vascular cambium (makes secondary xylem - wood & phloem) 2. Cork cambium (produces tough thick covering to replace epidermis – bark) 


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