Presentation on theme: "Chapter 35 Reading Quiz What are the three basic plant organs?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 35 Reading Quiz What are the three basic plant organs? Tracheids and vessel elements are cells that make up what vascular tissue?Which one of the three basic plant cell types is used mostly for storage?How long do annual plants live for?What is the general name for a perpetually embryonic tissue?
2 1. List the characteristics of an angiosperm, and distinguish between the two classes. Have flowers and fruit to help reproductionRoots, stems, and leavesXylem & phloemMonocotyledons (monocots) have a single cotyledonDicotyledons (dicots) have two cotyledonsAlso have several other structural differences
4 2. Describe the importance of root systems and shoot systems to plants and explain how they work together.They are both evolutionary adaptations for living on landRoots depend on shoots for synthesizing sugar and other organic nutrientsShoots depend on roots for the water and minerals that they absorb
6 3. Distinguish between xylem and phloem, and explain how taproot and fibrous root systems differ. Xylem conveys water & dissolved minerals from the roots to the shootsPhloem transports food made in the leaves to the roots and developing leaves and fruitsTaproot one large vertical root, most dicots (carrot)Fibrous mat of threadlike roots that spread out, most monocots (grasses)
8 4. Overview the setup of a stem’s anatomy. Nodes points where leaves are attachedInternodes stem segments between nodesAxillary bud angle between leaf & stem, potential branch shootTerminal bud the tip of a young shoot, lots of developing leaves, nodes, & internodesApical dominance inhibition of axillary bud growth by terminal bud dominance (apex)
10 5. Overview a leaf’s anatomy. Stalk is called the petiole (only in some)Flattened bladeLeaf shape and venation varies between monocots & dicotsSimple, compound, and doubly compound leavesLeaves are modified to the environmentex: cactus spines, ice plant leaves
12 6. Distinguish between parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma cells. Parenchyma relatively unspecialized, flexible cells; used for storage generally, carry on plant’s metabolic functions (apple)Collenchyma unevenly thickened cell walls for support in the plant (celery stalk)Sclerenchyma specialized for support, cell walls are hardened with lignin1. Fibers – long & slender, linen fibers2. Sclerids – irregular, pears & fruit pits
15 7. Diagram and describe the two types of water-conducting xylem cells. Tracheids – long thin cells with tapered ends; water moves through pits; function in support as wellVessel elements – wider, shorter, thinner-walled, less tapered; aligned perforated end to perforated end forming little pipes which water flows through
17 8. Describe the food-conducting cells of phloem. Phloem composed of sieve tube members each associated with a companion cellThese are tubes that lack organelles and therefore are assisted by the companion cells that have a nucleus, ribosomes, etc.
19 9. Distinguish among the dermal, vascular, and ground tissue systems. Dermal epidermis of plant, includes root hairs, cuticle, everything that you seeVascular the xylem & phloem of the plant’s tissues (usually in the center)Ground makes up the bulk of the plant’s tissues, mostly parenchyma, found mostly between the vascular & dermal tissues
21 10. Define and give examples of annual, biennial, and perennial plants. Annuals plants that complete their life cycles (from germination – flowering – seed production – death) in one year or lessex: crops (legumes & cereals)Biennials life spans two years; 1st is vegetative growth, 2nd is for floweringex: beets & carrotsPerennials plants that live for many years and can continuously growex: trees, shrubs, some grasses
23 11. Describe the variety of meristems that exist on a plant. Meristems perpetually embryonic tissuesApical meristems locates at tips of roots and in buds of shoots, supply cells for length (called primary growth)Lateral meristems cylinders of dividing cells along the length of roots & shoots, allow for a progressive “thickening” called secondary growth (woody plants)
25 12. Briefly overview the growth and tissues of roots, describing the different zones. The zone of cell division includes the primary meristems: the protoderm (dermal tissues), procambium (vascular tissues), and ground meristem (ground tissues)The zone of elongation is responsible for pushing the root meristems aheadThe zone of maturation is where the three tissues produced by the primary growth complete their differentiation
27 13. Briefly overview the growth and tissues of stems. The apical meristem also gives rise to the three primary meristemsAxillary buds, nodes, and internodes all develop very close together and elongate as the plant tip grows outThe vascular tissue of the stem runs the entire length and is surrounded by ground tissue – the organization depends on whether the plant is a monocot (bundles throughout) or a dicot (bundles arranged in a ring)
28 14. Describe tissue organization in leaves. The leaf is covered by epidermis and by a waxy cuticleStomata are located throughout and are tiny pores flanked by guard cells which control the size of the openingStomata are for gas exchange and transpiration (evaporation of water)Mesophyll is the ground tissue, mostly parenchyma cells and the location of the chloroplastsThe veins in a leaf are the vascular tissue