Presentation on theme: "DR. ANTHONY W. DIXON DR. MARK HENRY Economic Significance of College Football as a Tourism Attraction."— Presentation transcript:
DR. ANTHONY W. DIXON DR. MARK HENRY Economic Significance of College Football as a Tourism Attraction
Introduction Sport tourism: “All forms of active and passive involvement in sporting activity, participated in casually or in an organized way for non-commercial or business reasons that necessitate travel away from home and work locality” (Standevan and DeKnop, 1999, p. 12)
Introduction Three types of sport tourism: Active Event Nostalgia
Introduction One of the primary motivations for hosting sporting events is the anticipated economic impact. U.S. event sport tourism generated $27 billion in 2001. In 2001, 38% of U.S. adults attended a sport event as spectator or participant, while on a trip of 50 miles or more.
Introduction Review of literature: Active and passive client profiles (Kurtzman & Zauhar, 1995) Examine aspects of sporting event spectators (Getz, 1998) Collegiate sporting event spectators and significance as tourism attractions (Irwin & Sandler, 1998) Lack of research on U.S. college sporting events and as a community tourism attraction (Gibson et al., 2003)
Purpose Why college football? Recognized as second most popular sport in America Total home attendance for all Division I – FBS Over 34 million each year for past 5 years Statement of Purpose: The purpose of this research is to determine whether college football is a tourism attraction and estimate the economic impact of the activity.
Research Questions RQ1: Is college football a tourism attraction? RQ2: What are the expenditure patterns of non-local residents attending college football games? RQ3: What is the direct, indirect, and induced economic impacts of college football on a local economy? RQ4: What are the characteristics of non-local residents attending the university’s college football games?
Methods On-site sampling Systematic sampling with a random start Research assistants systematically collecting email addresses Participants sent link to online questionnaire N = 769 Response rate = 47.2%
Findings Total sample: 69% of respondents non-residents of study region 60% male and 40% female Age = 38 50% college degree and 23% college graduate degree 56% annual household income over $80,000 25% of respondents stayed overnight; average 2.38 days Attend 5 games on average Been visiting local area for 16 years Financially responsible for 2.3 people Attendance = 546,004 Estimated non-resident attendance = 375,651 Average travel distance to stadium was 87 miles 50% of respondents residing outside 50 miles of stadium
Findings Non-local residents 32.2% were sport tourist (staying overnight) Attended 4.65 games 2.31 days 122 miles from stadium Visiting area for 18 years 67.8% were sport excursionist (day trippers) Attended 5 games 108 miles from stadium Visiting area for 18 years
Findings Average expenditures of non-local residents in study area. CategoriesTotal Non-Resident (Sport Excursionist) Non-Resident (Sport Tourists) Retail (Grocery, clothing, etc.)$30.62$14.26$48.18* Restaurants/drinking places27.4313.3253.06* Accommodations41.940.00180.31* Game (tickets, concessions)112.17119.20157.64* Recreational activities1.670.623.99 Entertainment2.022.112.35 Auto20.0612.5640.24* Other1.310.892.90 Total$237.22$162.96$488.67 * Significant at the.o1 alpha level.
Findings Economic impact of College football games (2008) Non-resident spending: $41,041,553 Direct: $35,277,696 Indirect: $8,895,072 Induced: $5,338,992 Total: $49,511,808 Jobs: 727
Application Tourism organizations Develop relationship with University Athletic Departments Market local attractions Additional activity available to potential visitors Initiate strategies to covert day trippers to overnight visitors Local businesses Develop relationship with University Athletic Departments Sponsorship or other marketing activities Local government Foster relationship with University Athletic Departments
Application Significant economic impact Sport tourism as economic development strategy Justify public subsidies to support promotion of college football Expenditure patterns: Athletic departments can use to increase sponsorships Local businesses can use to develop more effective marketing strategies to target potential customers Issue Non-local residents visiting area for approximately 18 years
Conclusion Results indicate college football may be tourism attraction. College football does provide significant economic impact on local economy. Encourage communication between local government, university athletic departments and tourism organizations.