Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4: Socialization:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 4: Socialization: Becoming Human and HumaneSoc 100Dr. Santos
2 IntroductionSocialization- the lifelong process of learning to become a member of the social worldInteraction - the basic processes of socialization through which a child is shaped into a human being, learns its culture, and becomes a member of a societySocial self - the changing perceptions we have of who we are as a result of ongoing socialization, from birth to death.
3 The Nature vs. Nurture Debate The debate over whether biology (genes, evolution) or socialization explains the self and all human behaviorsSociobiology (evolutionary psychology)- is a bio-determinist theory that claims our genetic make-up “wires” us for certain social behaviorsNot well accepted by most sociologists > 1920sGreatly abused in from 1850 (Social Darwinism) all the way to 1945 (Fascism)
4 The importance of socialization Children need human contact, affection, and interaction in order to fully developE.g., Anna, Isabelle, neglected orphan children, the latter with deaf-mute motherBecause these children were not socialized at the proper time, their developmental disorders persisted after attempts to integrate them into society, Anna much worse than Isabelle
5 Socialization and the social world Most of our experiences are a part of our socialization experienceMicro-level- e.g., parents, friendsMeso-level- e.g., schools and religionMacro-level- e.g., national advertisementsOrganizations and institutions are dependent upon socialized people to help them persist: school, boot camp, internship, church school, etc.
6 The Structural-functionalist perspective - different socializing agents support one another --> social harmony --> social orderThe Conflict perspective - different socializing agents have conflicting goals --> social conflict --> social changeThose who have power use socialization to manipulate others into supporting the power structure that benefits the elite --> “false consciousness” among subordinate social strataMost individuals have very little power to decide or control their futures (not so if organized & mobilized for collective action - “consciousness”)
7 Development of the self Self - the perceptions we have of who we are which are developed from our perceptions of the way others respond to us in our myriad interactionsThe development of the self begins at birth and through infancyBiology and sociology both contribute to the development of the self
8 The looking glass self (Cooley) We imagine how we appear to othersWe interpret how others judge that appearance and then respond to that interpretation through behaviorWe experience feelings of pride or shame based on this imagined appearance and judgment by othersWe respond based on our interpretation
10 Role-taking (Mead)We imagine ourselves from the point of view of others and assume the role we think we areWhen humans can symbolically recognize objects, they can then view the self as an objectThis process begins with having a name, which differentiates the self from other objectsOnly humans use symbolsWe imagine ourselves being others: role-playing
11 Symbolic interaction theory We take the actions of ourselves and others into account and take mental notes accordinglyThe self can be passive (developed by the way that others see us) and active (an initiator of action - an agent)
12 Parts of the self (Mead) The “I”- spontaneous, unpredictable, impulsive; acts without considering social consequencesThe “me”- knows the rules of society and attempts to channel the impulses of the “I” into socially acceptable behavior that still meets the “I’s” needsThe “me” requires the ability to take the role of the other
13 Stages in the development of the self (Mead) Play - children actually take on the role of particular others, but do not understand complex relationshipsGame- children can take the role of multiple others at once and understand the generalized otherGeneralized other- a composite of societal expectationsCan now play complex games (e.g., baseball)
14 The connections of the self to the meso-level Iowa schoolOur sense of self is defined by our social positions within organizations and institutions in societyThe self is relatively stable because a core self developsBecause those organizations are so important to our core self, we have a vested interest in their preservation
15 Socialization throughout the life cycle Rites of passage occur at most stagesImportant because they impact how others perceive the individual, how the individual perceives herself, and what is expected of the individualInfant - Childhood - AdolescenceAdulthood - Middle Adulthood– Retired and the Elderly Death and Dying
16 The process of resocialization Resocialization- the process of abandoning one or more social positions in favor of others that are more suitable for a newly acquired statusCan be voluntary or non-voluntary
17 Agents of socialization Agents are the mechanism through which the self learns the beliefs, values, and behaviors of the cultureThe importance of various agents change over the life courseAgents can be formal or informalSocialization differs by parenting style, social class, race, sex, etc.
18 Families as agents of socialization Families use positive and negative sanctions to help teach right from wrongThe amount and type of sanctions differ by familyFamily socialization differs by cultureThe number of children in a household and birth order can influence individual socializations
19 Social class and socialization Social class- the wealth, power, and prestige rankings individuals hold in societyParents socialize their children to enter into adult roles common to other members of their social classThe unequal distribution of resources in society have an impact on who we become
20 Electronic media: Meso-level agents within the home Children in the U.S. spend more time watching television than any other waking activityWhat messages do these agents of socialization send to children?