Presentation on theme: "Session 2.3: Skills for Supportive Supervision"— Presentation transcript:
1 Session 2.3: Skills for Supportive Supervision Module 2: Managing Human ResourcesLeadership and Management Course for ZHRC Coordinators and HTI Principals, and ZHRC/HTI Management TeamsINTRODUCE Session 2.3 to participants.INFORM participants that this session is scheduled to take about 60 minutes.ENCOURAGE participants to ask questions at any time.All pictures and images in this session are from Microsoft Office Clip Art Gallery, unless otherwise noted.
2 Learning ObjectivesBy the end of the session, participants will be able to:Define supportive supervision.List three key competencies for supervisors.Describe different supervisory roles.ASK a volunteer to read the learning objectives aloud to the group.ASK participants if they have any questions before continuing.
3 What is “supportive supervision?” Supervision is the process of directing and supporting staff so that they may effectively perform their duties.- Stinson et al, 1998Supervision is a complex mix of skills that will help you improve the quality of your organization.- MSH & UNICEFNote: slide contains animation.SHOW Part 1 of slide (Heading).ASK participants:What does the term “supportive supervision” mean?ALLOW a few moments for participants to respond.WRITE responses on a flipchart or chalkboard.SHOW Part 2 of slide (definitions).ASK a volunteer to read the definition of supervision aloud.EXPLAIN to participants that:There are many ways to define supportive supervision. We will focus on 2 key definitions.Supervisors play a key role in facilitating good staff performance and enabling staff to provide quality services.Supportive Supervision is defined as a process that promotes quality at all levels of the health system by:Strengthening relationships within the systemFocusing on the identification and resolution of problemsHelping to optimize the allocation of resourcesWRAP-UP with the key points:The two definitions support one another.The first defines supervision as a process, while the second definition suggests that supervision requires skills.Source:MSH, UNICEF. Supervision. The Guide to Managing for Quality Available at: Accessed on October 15, 2010.Stinson W, Malianga L, Marquez L, Madubuike C: Quality Supervision. QA Brief: The Quality Assurance Project's Information Outlet 1998 , 7:4-6.Supportive Supervision = Process + Skills
4 Why is supportive supervision important? Supportive supervision helps to:Motivate staff to do a good jobEnsure high-quality work and servicesDetect and solve problemsPrevent future problemsTrain staff to improve their capacity to performGive feedbackMonitor implementation of activitiesGather suggestions to improve processesASK participants:Why is supportive supervision important?ALLOW a few moments for participants to respond.REVIEW slide, building off of participant responses.EMPHASIZE the following key points, building off participant responses:Supervision serves many functions within an organization.Supportive supervision is linked to staff motivation, quality, successful implementation of activities and projects, problem-solving, and quality improvement.Source:MSH, UNICEF. Supervision. The Guide to Managing for Quality Available at: Accessed on October 15, 2010.
5 Components of Supportive Supervision MentoringProviding constructive feedbackJoint problem-solvingTwo-way communication between supervisors and superviseesEXPLAIN to participants that supportive supervision includes these key components.Source:ACQUIRE Project/Engender health. Module 3: A New Approach to Supervision. From Facilitative Supervision for Quality Improvement: A Curriculum. Available from: Accessed on October
6 Heart of Supportive Supervision Set GoalsListenCultivate AccountabilityREFER participants to Handout 2.3.1: Heart of Supportive Supervision on page XXX of the Participant Handbook.EXPLAIN to participants that:Supervisory skills and tasks generally fall into three categories:Listening to staff and being attentive to what is happening inside and outside your immediate groupSetting Goals so that work can get accomplishedCultivating Accountability for making progress towards those goalsREVIEW the chart in Handout 2.3.1: Heart of Supportive Supervision with participants.EXPLAIN to participants that this chart breaks down the key activities of successful supervisors, and correlates them with motivational drives experienced by most people (Autonomy, Mastery, and Purpose).ASK if participants have any questions or comments before continuing.Source:Richard Wilkinson. The Heart of Supervision International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH). University of Washington, Seattle.Supportive Supervision
7 Guiding Principles for Supervisors Be supportive.Work as a team member to model supportive supervision.Talk with and listen to all levels of staff.Recognize jobs well done.Solve problems on the spot, when possible.Provide feedback in a constructive way.Involve staff in decision-making processes.Never criticize staff in front of a client or other employees.EXPLAIN to participants that:To be an excellent supervisor, you should always strive to follow these guiding principles.Adapted from:ACQUIRE Project/Engender Health. Facilitative Supervision for Quality Improvement: A Curriculum. Module 5: Assuring Safety for Clinical Techniques and Procedures. Page 5-1.
8 Activity: Reflecting on Supervision Positive SupervisorsThink of an excellent supervisor.What were their actions/behaviours?How did they make you feel? How did it affect motivation and performance?Challenging SupervisorsThink of a frustrating supervisor.FACILITATE activity using instructions below. This activity should take 15 minutes.PREPARE two flipcharts:Label them (1)Positive Supervisors, (2) Challenging SupervisorsOn each flipchart, make two columns. Label one column “Actions” and the other “Feelings”.ASK participants to take a moment to think back on their work experience.Think of a person who supervised you in the past—someone whom you admired and whose efforts you appreciated.What personal characteristics and experience did that person show?If no such supervisor comes to mind, think of the experience and personal characteristics that would make someone an ideal supervisor.ASK participants to share specific actions of their best supervisors, and how it made them feel.WRITE the actions on the “Positive Supervisors” flipchart in one column, and the feelings in the other column.ALLOW 5 minutes for participants to brainstorm.ASK participants:Think of a person who supervised you in the past—someone who may have made you feel frustrated, angry, or upset.What specific actions or behaviours from this person made you feel negatively? How did this impact your motivation or productivity?ASK participants to share specific actions of their worst supervisors, and how it made them feel.WRITE the actions on the “Challenging Supervisors” flipchart in one column, and the feelings in the other column.WRAP-UP the exercise by emphasizing that:The actions of supervisors carry great influence over their staff.
9 Supervisor Competencies Gain acceptance as a supervisorDevelop individual employee workplansMaintain high level of staff performanceConduct formal performance reviewsDeal with performance problemsManage conflict between employeesCounsel troubled employeesDemonstrate time management skillsPRESENT slide, using the following points:There are some key skills or competencies that a supervisor should have.It takes some training and experience to learn to develop these skills.We will discuss each competency in greater detail.Source:Management Sciences for Health (MSH). Supervisor Competency Self-Assessment Inventory. From The Health and Family Planning Manager’s Toolkit Available from:(Direct download:
10 Gain Acceptance as a Supervisor A successful supervisor earns the respect of their workgroup.Know Your StaffCommunicateOpenlyListenAdvocateBeConsistentRespectProblem-SolveNote: slide contains animation.SHOW Part 1 of slide (title, bullet point, picture.)ASK participants:How can a supervisor can gain the respect of his/her staff?ALLOW a few moments for participants to respond.SHOW part 2 of slide (text boxes)As a supervisor, you will begin gain acceptance when you:Know your staff (educational background, interests, etc.)Advocate for your staff if appropriateListen, be open to your staff’s concernsCommunicate openlyCommunicate your performance expectations, background, and philosophy with staffRegularly communicate relevant information from upper managementCommunicate the organizational and unit goals with your superviseesBe consistent and fair in how you treat and work with peopleRespect staff and their contributions.Problem-solve with staff, jointly and activelySource:Management Sciences for Health (MSH). Supervisor Competency Self-Assessment Inventory. From The Health and Family Planning Manager’s Toolkit Available from:
11 Develop Employee Workplans Meet with each employee individuallyJointly develop performance objectives for a specified time period (3, 6, 12 months)Review workplans regularly, change as neededSupervisor and employee should agree on:Major areas of responsibilityPerformance standardsPRESENT slide:Supervisors and employees should collaborate to develop individual employee workplans together.Supervisors and staff should check in regularly.Work plans can be flexible, and be adjusted as needed.An employee’s job description is a good starting point for a workplan.A supervisor should help to provide adequate resources and advice for employee to succeed.Source:Management Sciences for Health (MSH). Supervisor Competency Self-Assessment Inventory. From The Health and Family Planning Manager’s Toolkit Available from:
12 One-on-One Meetings Regularly scheduled Focus on the staff member Weekly, or every 2 weeksRarely missed!Focus on the staff memberDiscuss progress, challenges, successesProblem-solve together as neededProvide positive feedback, and corrective or constructive feedback as neededAim for minutesDo not conduct meeting in public, if possibleNotes can help guide future follow-upREVIEW slide.Regularly scheduled one-on-one supervision meetings are different from formal performance reviews. They are less formal, and focus on what is happening right now. (Formal performance reviews focus on big-picture performance.)It can be helpful to prepare in advance, and to take notes to provide continuity with follow-up.EXPLAIN to participants that:Some effective questions to help guide one-on-one supervision meetings include:Tell me about what you’ve been working on.Tell me about your week – what has it been like?What is going well? What are you having any challenges or difficulties with?Can you give me an update on Project ___________?Are you on track to meet the deadline? What areas are ahead of schedule?What questions do you have about the project?What suggestions do you have?What questions do you have about this project?Where do you think I can be most helpful?How are you going to approach this?What are your thoughts on my changes?What do you think about it?How do you think we can do this better?Will you have _____ completed by [Date]?What are your future goals in this area?What are your plans to get there?What can you/we do differently next time?Tell me about what you’ve learned on this project?
13 Maintain High Performance Motivate your staff to achieve their best work.ThankStaffReward HighPerformanceListenSkillDevelopmentKeep StaffInformedGive FeedbackInvolve inDecisionsSupport StaffCelebrateSuccessCreate GoodWork ClimateNote: slide contains animation.SHOW Part 1 of slide (title & bullet point).EXPLAIN to participants that:Supervisors can find effective ways of motivating staff to help maintain high level of performance.ASK participants:How can a supervisor help motivate staff to perform well?ALLOW a few moments for participants to respond.SHOW part 2 of slide (text boxes)REFER participants to Handout 2.3.2: Top 10 Ways to Motivate Staff, on page XXX of the Participant Handbook.REVIEW this list with participants. Encourage participants to refer back to it!Source:ACQUIRE Project/Engender Health. Facilitative Supervision for Quality Improvement: A Curriculum. Module 7:Building Leadership Skills.
14 Conduct Performance Reviews Formal opportunity to review overall performanceMeet with employees individuallyReview entire workplan, assess performanceProvide feedback, set goalsDevelop action plan, professional development planRegularly scheduled basis (6-12 months)Incorporate employee’s comments in documentationMay include peer feedbackOPRAS system provides some guidanceREVIEW key elements of performance reviews:Performance reviews provide an opportunity to review the overall performance of the employee. They differ from regular one-on-ones.They provide an opportunity to:Review an employee’s work plan and assess performanceProvide positive and constructive feedbackJointly develop an action plan for any education, training, or in-service activities for employeeDiscuss professional development opportunitiesThe employee’s comments and perspectives should be included in the performance review.Some organizations include peer feedback as an element of performance evaluationIn Tanzania, the OPRAS system provides a framework for supervision and performance review.EXPLAIN to participants that we will be discussing performance reviews in greater depth later in this session.
15 Dealing with Performance Problems Approach performance issues constructively.Give feedbackWork collaboratively to problem-solveLook for underlying causes, try to address themIf necessary, pursue disciplinary action or termination.REVIEW slide:Poor or mediocre performance from staff can be frustrating to supervisors.EXPLAIN to participants that we will be discussing performance problems in greater depth later in this session.
16 Managing Conflict Conflict is inevitable. Conflict is not always negative!It can help teams grow, consider new ideas, and produce good solutionsAddress and prevent destructive fighting and politicsPromote and model productive, healthy conflictPRESENT slide using the following points:Conflict between employees can be one of the most difficult areas for supervisors have to deal with.Supervisors can a critical role in promoting productive conflict resolution on their teams.REMIND participants that we addressed conflict in Module 1, in the session on Team Building. We will discuss additional strategies for managing conflict later in this session.
17 Counselling Troubled Staff Staff may need support, flexibility or assistance when dealing with a personal difficultyPersonal difficulties can impact work performanceSupport staff to resolve personal difficultiesRespect privacy, confidentialityOffer flexible schedule, re-assess workplan, allow leave (as appropriate)Adhere to appropriate policiesRefer to an outside source for assistance, if possiblePRESENT slide using the following points:Difficult times can happen to anyone. At times, personal difficulties have an impact on performance at work.As supervisors, you may become aware of one of your staff having a personal problem that is affecting their work.As the employee works to address the problem, try to be as flexible and supportive as you reasonably can.You may want to refer the employee to an outside resource for assistance.It is important that you keep the privacy and confidentiality of the employee while adhering to established employee policies in your organization.
18 Time Management Finding time to supervise well is challenging! PrioritizeDelegatePlanAheadBuild in“Free” TimeMinimizeInterruptionsAsk forAdvice/SupportNote: slide contains animation.SHOW Part 1 of slide (title, bullet point).ASK participants:How can supervisors manage effectively with competing demands on their time?ALLOW a few moments for participants to respond.SHOW part 2 of slide (text boxes)Time management is a challenging art. Poor time management may result from:Poor habits (ex: procrastination, lack of discipline)Poor skills in planning and delegation.Inability to minimize or control interruptions.Try to deal with time management challenges by:Planning your daily, weekly, monthly schedule to allow time for the most important tasks.Prioritizing your own responsibilities ; reviewing your task list periodicallyAsking your own supervisor for advice when you have too much work and no one to delegate to.Allowing “free” time in your schedule to accommodate unexpected demandsDelegating tasks wherever possible.Minimizing or discouraging unnecessary interruptions.
19 Different Roles of Supervisor Role ModelTeacherMotivatorMentorPRESENT slide:Supervisors play many roles to their supervisees, including but not limited to being role models, teachers, motivators, and mentors.Adapted from:ACQUIRE Project/Engender Health. Facilitative Supervision for Quality Improvement: A Curriculum.
20 Supervisor as Role Model Model performance standardsProvide guidance for acceptable & unacceptable behaviourWalk the talk!PRESENT slide, using the following points:As a role model, supervisors provide guidance to employees on how to conduct themselves in the work place.ASK participants:Can you provide an example of when a supervisor is acting as a role model?ALLOW time for participants to provide 1-2 examples.Source:ACQUIRE Project/Engender health. ACQUIRE Project/Engender Health. Facilitative Supervision for Quality Improvement: A Curriculum. Module 7: Building Leadership Skills.
21 Supervisor as Teacher Provide information Build employee skills Effectively deliver needed information so employees can understand and learnDevelop employee potential to learnPRESENT slide, using the following points:In their role as teacher, supervisors provide information and build skills that employees need to guide their work.ASK participants:Can anyone provide an example of when a supervisor is acting as a teacher?ALLOW time for participants to provide 1-2 examples.
22 Supervisor as Motivator Encourage others to achieve desired resultsCreate enthusiasm and commitment in othersAim to understand what motivates each individualPRESENT slide, using the following points:Supervisors provide motivation and encouragement in the work place.ASK participants:Can anyone provide an example of when a supervisor is acting as a motivator?ALLOW time for participants to provide 1-2 examples.
23 Supervisor as Mentor Serve as a wise and trusted guide and advisor Help staff achieve what they never thought or believed they couldIn mentor role, the supervisor does not direct the employee’s workPRESENT slide, using the following points:One way to visualize the role of a mentor is to picture the supervisor walking along side an employee gently guiding them with a hand on their shoulder.Compare this to the usual position we visualize for a leader who is standing out in front pointing the way forward.Mentoring relationships are similar to coaching.ASK participants:Can anyone provide an example of when a supervisor is acting as mentor?ALLOW time for participants to provide 1-2 examples.ASK if participants have any comments or questions before continuing.
24 Key Points Supervisors carry great influence over their staff. Supportive supervision involves processes and skills.Supportive supervision is linked to staff motivation, quality, successful implementation of activities and projects, problem-solving, and quality improvement.Supervisors can serve as role models, teachers, motivators, and mentors to their staff.REVIEW key points from this session.ASK if participants have any comments or questions.THANK everyone for their attention and participation.