Definition MLA is a well known formatting style used for writing within the content areas of literature, arts, and humanities. (APA, MLA, Turabian, and Chicago Citation Styles)
Other Styles… APA: psychology, education, and other social sciences AMA: medicine, health, and biological sciences. Turabian: designed for college students to use with all subjects. Chicago: used with all subjects in the "real world" by books, magazines, newspapers, and other non- scholarly publications. (APA, MLA, Turabian, and Chicago Citation Styles)
Historical Background Founded in 1883 in NYC 1951 First “style sheet” published “Style” comes from many sources (Gibaldi 7) In just 30 years there has been a “dramatic shift” in the way we conduct and submit findings…
Why use MLA? Teacher convenience - consistency Style lends itself to process IB examiners look for consistency in style Promotes critical thinking and source evaluation Prevents accidental plagiarism
Definition In an instructional setting, plagiarism occurs when a writer deliberately uses someone else’s language, ideas, or other original (not common-knowledge) material without acknowledging its source. ("Defining and Avoiding Plagiarism")
Most plagiarism instruction fails to distinguish between: 1. Submitting someone else’s text as one’s own or attempting to blur the line between one’s own ideas or words and those borrowed from another source, and 2. carelessly or inadequately citing ideas and words borrowed from another source. ("Defining and Avoiding Plagiarism" )
Reasons for the misuse of information: Students have not been taught how to properly incorporate other’s ideas and document the sources of those ideas into their writing. Students make mistakes as they learn the previously mentioned process. Students don´t know how to organize and take proper notes during the research process. Higher level professors may define plagiarism more rigidly than teachers in earlier education writing instruction. These same higher level instructors may assume that students have already learned how to conduct research and properly document it. Additionally, they may not be willing to teach the previously mentioned skills, leaving students to fill in these knowledge deficits independently. Without proper instruction, students may not understand that using someone else’s ideas is also plagiarism. ("Defining and Avoiding Plagiarism" )
When & Where to use MLA 1. Research 2. Essays 3. Regular work ( to reinforce) 4. MYP personal project 5. Teacher Modeling of MLA within all classroom handouts etc.
Resources The OWL at Purdue MLA Handbook 7th Edition EasyBib
Paper Formatting Use white 8.5” x 11” paper. Double-space everything. Use 12 pt. Times New Roman font (or similar font). Leave only one space after punctuation. Set all margins to one inch on all sides. Indent the first line of paragraphs one half-inch. ( “Purdue Owl”)
First Page Do not include a title page. In the upper left corner of the first page, list your name, your instructor's name, the course, and date. Center the paper title (no underlining, italics, quotes, or bold). Create a header in the upper right corner at half inch from the top and one inch from the right of the page (include your last name and page number). ( “Purdue Owl”)
How to Cite Your Sources Citations must occur inside the text and in a work cited document at the end of the paper. Signal words and page numbers (when appropriate) are used for in- text citation. (“Purdue Owl”)
Example of Works Cited Page Works Cited "Blueprint Lays Out Clear Path for Climate Action." Environmental Defense Fund. Environmental Defense Fund, 8 May 2007. Web. 24 May 2009. Clinton, Bill. Interview by Andrew C. Revkin. “Clinton on Climate Change.” New York Times. New York Times, May 2007. Web. 25 May 2009. Dean, Cornelia. "Executive on a Mission: Saving the Planet." New York Times. New York Times, 22 May 2007. Web. 25 May 2009.
In-text Citation In-text citations indicate a change in sources within the text. In-text citations use signal words that correspond with the work cited entries. In-text citations have specific formats for specific types of sources. ( “Purdue Owl”)
Here’s how signal words work… "Blueprint Lays Out Clear Path for Climate Action." Environmental Defense Fund. Environmental Defense Fund, 8 May 2007. Web. 24 May 2009. = ("Blueprint Lays Out Clear Path for Climate Action”) Clinton, Bill. Interview by Andrew C. Revkin. “Clinton on Climate Change.” New York Times. New York Times, May 2007. Web. 25 May 2009. = (Clinton)
In-text Citation Examples… Human beings have been described by Kenneth Burke as "symbol-using animals" (3). Human beings have been described as "symbol-using animals" (Burke 3).
Defining the Parameters Inquiry Based Designing Research Question Judge, Evaluate, Analyze…
Clarify Expectations How many sources? What kinds of sources? How many in-text citations? Students should produce more research than writing!
Collecting Research Cornell Notes Annotated Bibliography Inquiry Based
What are the benefits of using this kind of format… Organization is provided Reduces possibility of plagiarism Citing sources is straightforward Generates meaningful quote options for students Provides an introduction to annotated bibliographies
Annotated Bibliographies An annotated bibliography is a list of citations to books, articles, and documents. Each citation is followed by a brief (usually about 150 words) descriptive and evaluative paragraph, the annotation. The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited. ("How to Prepare an Annotated Bibliography")
Annotate Bibliography Example Waite, Linda J., Frances Kobrin Goldscheider, and Christina Witsberger. "Nonfamily Living and theErosion of Traditional Family Orientations Among Young Adults." American Sociological Review 51.4 (1986): 541-554. Print. The authors, researchers at the Rand Corporation and Brown University, use data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women and Young Men to test their hypothesis that nonfamily living by young adults alters their attitudes, values, plans, and expectations, moving them away from their belief in traditional sex roles. They find their hypothesis strongly supported in young females, while the effects were fewer in studies of young males. Increasing the time away from parents before marrying increased individualism, self-sufficiency, and changes in attitudes about families. In contrast, an earlier study by Williams cited below shows no significant gender differences in sex role attitudes as a result of nonfamily living. ( "How to Prepare an Annotated Bibliography")
Formatting Quotes Short Quotations: Short quotes contain fewer than four typed lines of prose or three lines of verse Enclose the quotation within double quotation marks. Make sure that the in-text citation occurs directly after the closing quotation marks. Example: According to some, dreams express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184), though others disagree. Long Quotations: Start the quotation on a new line, with the entire quote indented one inch from the left margin. Maintain double-spacing. Only indent the first line of the quotation by a half inch if you are citing multiple paragraphs. Your parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. When quoting verse, maintain original line breaks.
Long Quote Example In-text Example: Long Quotations Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him throughout her narration: They entirely refused to have it in bed with them, or even in their room,and I had no more sense, so, I put it on the landing of the stairs, hoping it would be gone on the morrow. By chance, or else attracted by hearing his voice, it crept to Mr. Earnshaw's door, and there he found it on quitting his chamber. Inquiries were made as to how it got there; I was obliged to confess, and in recompense for my cowardice and inhumanity was sent out of the house. (Bronte 78)
Works Cited " APA, MLA, Turabian, and Chicago Citation Styles." Long Island University. Web. 11 Mar. 2010.. "Defining and Avoiding Plagiarism: The WPA Statement on Best Practices | Council of Writing Program Administrators." President's Message | Council of Writing Program Administrators. Web. 11 Mar. 2010.. Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2009. Print. "How to Prepare an Annotated Bibliography." Home | Cornell University Library. Web. 12 Mar. 2010.. "Purdue OWL." Welcome to the Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL). Web. 11 Mar. 2010..