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Revolution Brings Reform and Terror Section 2 Pages 656-661.

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1 Revolution Brings Reform and Terror Section 2 Pages 656-661

2 Objectives Explain how the National Assembly changed France’s government. Summarize the positions of the three factions that tried to govern France. Explain how war and the king’s execution affected the Revolution. Describe the events and the aftermath of the Reign of Terror.

3 Discussion Why do people obey government?

4 The Assembly Reforms France Peasants were fearful, but they were not the only parts of French society that were scared the officers of the Church and nobles. The Rights of Man: late August of 1789, the National Assembly adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. This document reflected the ideals of the American Declaration of Independence. Revolutionary leaders adopted the expression “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity” as their mantra. When Olympe de Gouges published the declaration of the rights of women, her ideas were not accepted and she was declared an enemy of the Revolution and executed.

5 A State Controlled Church: The Assembly took over the Church’s lands and declared Church officials and priests were to be elected and be paid as state officials. The Catholic church lost its lands and political power. The reasons for the assembly’s action was economic in nature. The money from the sale of the lands were to pay of France’s huge debt. The peasant population was concerned over the Enlightenment philosophy of controlling the church. The peasants believed the pope should rule over the church independently. From this point forward the peasants opposed the assembly’s reforms.

6 Louis Tries to Escape: The National Assembly worked on restructuring the church and state. The king was wondering what was going to happen to the monarch. Many of the advisors to the monarch felt that France was unsafe and left the country. June, 1791 the king and his family tried to escape to Austria and almost made it. The family was caught and returned to Paris in which his fate was sealed.

7 Divisions Develop A Limited Monarchy: September, 1791 the National Assembly developed a new constitution in which Louis approved. In the constitution it created a constitutional monarchy and created a Legislative Assembly: this body would create laws and approve or reject declarations of war. The king still had executive authority to enforce laws. Factions Split France: With a new government problems still existed such as food shortages and large government debt. Legislative Assembly is divided into three areas; Radicals on the left side-opposed the idea of the monarchy and sweeping changes in government; Moderates in the center and wanted some changes in government; Conservatives were on the right side –idea of limited monarchy and wanted some changes in government.

8 Emigres: these were nobles who had fled and wanted to end the Revolution and restore the Old Regime. Sans-culottes or “those without knee breeches”: unlike the upper classes who wore knee length pants, the sans-culottes wore regular trousers. The group did not play a role in the assembly, but had influence on the streets of Paris

9 War and Execution Monarchs and nobles wanted to put down any revolt in other countries in Europe. Austria and Prussia urged the French to restore the monarchy. The Legislative Assembly chose to declare war in April, 1792. France at War: Prussian forces moved towards Paris threatening to destroy the city if any harm came to the monarch and his family. This threat angered the people of Paris and they invaded the palace and imprisoned the royal family. September Massacre: The people of Paris stormed the local prison killing prisoners and many nobles, priests, and royalist supporters were killed during this time.

10 The radicals in the streets pressured the Legislative Assembly set aside the Constitution of 1791 and declared the king deposed and dissolved the assemble and called for the election of a new government. The National Convention: new governing body took office and abolished the monarchy. They declared France a republic. Adult male citizens were granted the right to vote and hold office. Women were not given the right to vote.

11 Jacobins Take Control: September, 1792- many were members of a radical political group known as the Jacobins. Jean-Paul Marat: he edited a newspaper during the revolution called Friend of the People. In his editorials he called for the death of those who supported the king. George Danton: lawyer and excellent speaker who supported the poor of Paris.

12 January 21, 1793- The National Convention tried Louis XVI for treason and sentenced him to death. His role had been reduced to common citizen. He was walked up the steps to the Guillotine –a machine in which beheaded its victims. The Terror Grips France: Maximilien Robespierre: was a Jacobin leader who slowly rose to power. He wanted to build a “republic of virtue” wiping out all of France’s past. Churches were closed due to being to religious and dangerous.

13 Reign of Terror: July, 1793 Robespierre became the leader of the Committee of Public Safety. He ruled as a dictator and protect the Revolution from its enemies. Enemies were tried and guillotined all in one day. Marie Antoinette was beheaded for being an enemy. It has been estimated that at least 40,000 people were beheaded, mainly peasants, urban poor or middle class.

14 End of the Terror July, 1794- fearing for there own safety members of the National Convention turned on Robespierre. They arrested and executed Robespierre on July 28, 1794. The radical phase of the French Revolution had ended. 1795: People had grown weary of the Terror, the high prices of bread and other life’s necessities. The National Convention became moderate and created a two-body legislature and a five man executive body known as the Directory. It was not perfect and some became rich. It gave the country a time of order.

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