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Revolution Brings Reform and Terror

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1 Revolution Brings Reform and Terror
Ch. 23 Section 2 Revolution Brings Reform and Terror

2 The Assembly Reforms France
The Rights of Man National Assembly adopts the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizens Revolutionary leaders use the slogan, “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity!”

3 A State-Controlled Church
National Assembly seizes church lands, turns clergy into public officials This action alarms many peasants, who are devout Catholics

4 The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
August 26, 1789 Liberty! Property! Resistance to oppression! Thomas Jefferson was in Paris at this time.

5 The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen Posed New Dilemmas
Did women have equal rights with men? What about free blacks in the colonies? How could slavery be justified if all men were born free? Did religious toleration of Protestants and Jews include equal political rights?

6 Louis Tries to Escape Louis, worried about his future, attempts to leave France Revolutionaries catch the royal family near the Austrian Netherlands border Forced to return back to Paris

7 Marie Antoinette & Louis XVI
The French Monarchy: Marie Antoinette & Louis XVI

8 Marie Antoinette and the Royal Children

9 The Royal Family Attempts to Flee

10 Divisions Develop A Limited Monarchy
In September, 1791 Assembly finishes new constitution Stripped king of much of his authority Created Legislative Assembly New body created to pass laws Had ability to approve/reject declarations of war

11 Factions Split France Major problems including debt, food shortages remain Assembly split Radicals-(left) Opposed monarchy Wanted sweeping changes in government Moderates-(center) Wanted some changes in government Conservatives-(right) Limited monarchy Few changes in government

12 Émigrés-nobles who flee country, want Old Regime back in power
San-culottes - lower class who want more change from the Revolution

13 War and Execution Problems with other countries
Austrians and Prussians want Louis in charge of France; France declares war (Legislative Assembly)

14 France at War – summer of 1792
Prussian forces soon threaten to attack Paris Parisian mob jails royal family, kills guards Mob breaks into prisons, killing over 1,000, many of whom support the king Pressured by the mob, Legislative Assembly deposes the king, then dissolves, new legislative body forms National Convention takes office in September, forming French republic

15 Jacobins Take Control Radical political organization behind the 1792 governmental changes After a close vote, Louis XVI found guilty of treason and beheaded by guillotine

16 The Jacobins Jacobin Meeting House They held their meetings in the library of a former Jacobin monastery in Paris. Started as a debating society. Membership mostly middle class. Created a vast network of clubs.


18 18

19 The War Continues French army wins great victory against Prussians and Austrians In 1793, Britain, Spain, and Holland join forces against France National Convention forces draft of 300,000 to reinforce army

20 The Terror Grips France
Divided Country Not all people in France support all changes of the Revolution

21 Robespierre Assumes Control
Maximilien Robespierre – Jacobin leader rules France for a year Becomes leader of the Committee for Public Safety, a dictator

22 Reign of Terror – Robespierre’s rule, which includes killing many opponents
Thousands die during the Terror, including former allies and Marie Antoinette 85% of those killed are middle or lower class

23 Different Social Classes Executed
7% 8% 28% 25% 31%

24 End of the Terror Another Change in Government
In July 1794, Robespierre arrested, executed Terror results in public opinion shifting away from radical beliefs Moderate leaders write new constitution Two-house legislature and five-man Directory restore order New government makes Napoleon Bonaparte commander of armies

25 “Triumph of the Third Estate”

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