Presentation on theme: "Revolution Brings Reform and Terror"— Presentation transcript:
1 Revolution Brings Reform and Terror Ch. 23 Section 2Revolution Brings Reform and Terror
2 The Assembly Reforms France The Rights of ManNational Assembly adopts the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the CitizensRevolutionary leaders use the slogan, “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity!”
3 A State-Controlled Church National Assembly seizes church lands, turns clergy into public officialsThis action alarms many peasants, who are devout Catholics
4 The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen August 26, 1789Liberty!Property!Resistance to oppression!Thomas Jefferson was in Paris at this time.
5 The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen Posed New Dilemmas Did women have equal rights with men?What about free blacks in the colonies?How could slavery be justified if all men were born free?Did religious toleration of Protestants and Jews include equal political rights?
6 Louis Tries to EscapeLouis, worried about his future, attempts to leave FranceRevolutionaries catch the royal family near the Austrian Netherlands borderForced to return back to Paris
7 Marie Antoinette & Louis XVI The French Monarchy:Marie Antoinette & Louis XVI
10 Divisions Develop A Limited Monarchy In September, 1791 Assembly finishes new constitutionStripped king of much of his authorityCreated Legislative AssemblyNew body created to pass lawsHad ability to approve/reject declarations of war
11 Factions Split FranceMajor problems including debt, food shortages remainAssembly splitRadicals-(left)Opposed monarchyWanted sweeping changes in governmentModerates-(center)Wanted some changes in governmentConservatives-(right)Limited monarchyFew changes in government
12 Émigrés-nobles who flee country, want Old Regime back in power San-culottes - lower class who want more change from the Revolution
13 War and Execution Problems with other countries Austrians and Prussians want Louis in charge of France; France declares war (Legislative Assembly)
14 France at War – summer of 1792 Prussian forces soon threaten to attack ParisParisian mob jails royal family, kills guardsMob breaks into prisons, killing over 1,000, many of whom support the kingPressured by the mob, Legislative Assembly deposes the king, then dissolves, new legislative body formsNational Convention takes office in September, forming French republic
15 Jacobins Take ControlRadical political organization behind the 1792 governmental changesAfter a close vote, Louis XVI found guilty of treason and beheaded by guillotine
16 The JacobinsJacobin Meeting HouseThey held their meetings in the library of a former Jacobin monastery in Paris.Started as a debating society.Membership mostly middle class.Created a vast network of clubs.
19 The War ContinuesFrench army wins great victory against Prussians and AustriansIn 1793, Britain, Spain, and Holland join forces against FranceNational Convention forces draft of 300,000 to reinforce army
20 The Terror Grips France Divided CountryNot all people in France support all changes of the Revolution
21 Robespierre Assumes Control Maximilien Robespierre – Jacobin leader rules France for a yearBecomes leader of the Committee for Public Safety, a dictator
22 Reign of Terror – Robespierre’s rule, which includes killing many opponents Thousands die during the Terror, including former allies and Marie Antoinette85% of those killed are middle or lower class
23 Different Social Classes Executed 7%8%28%25%31%
24 End of the Terror Another Change in Government In July 1794, Robespierre arrested, executedTerror results in public opinion shifting away from radical beliefsModerate leaders write new constitutionTwo-house legislature and five-man Directory restore orderNew government makes Napoleon Bonaparte commander of armies