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French Revolution Reign of Terror.

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Presentation on theme: "French Revolution Reign of Terror."— Presentation transcript:

1 French Revolution Reign of Terror

2 National Assembly Reforms
Noblemen and clergy changed their sentiment by professing desire for equality and liberty…why? Declaration of the Rights of Man Church Reforms Louis Tries to Escape Do not copy this slide

3 Reforms: Declaration of the Rights of Man
National Assembly adopts on Aug. 27, 1789 Reflected the influence of the Enlightenment and Declaration of Independence Guaranteed citizens equal justice, freedom of speech, and freedom of religion Did not apply to women Olympe de Gouges wrote Declaration of the Rights of Women, but was executed

4 Church Reforms National Assembly seized Church lands
Church officials would now have to be elected by landowners, & paid as state employee Stripped wealth & political power from Church Allowed state to sell Church lands to pay debts, instead of tax bourgeoisie Peasants, being devout Catholics, rallied behind their priests Role of church & state drove a wedge between peasants & bourgeoisie…peasants opposed any new revolutionary changes

5 Louis XVI Flees Many supporters of the King felt France unsafe and fled the country In June 1791, fearing for his life, King Louis XVI and his family tried to escape to the Austrian Netherlands They were recognized, and brought back to Paris under guard

6 Revolutionary Divisions: New Constitution
The National Assembly took 2 years to create a new constitution in Sept. 1791 Limited constitutional monarchy (executive) Created Legislative Assembly (legislative) King was force to sign into law

7 Revolutionary Divisions: Factions Form
Problems continues; food shortages, large debt, and cries for more liberty & equality Legislative Assembly Radicals Moderates Conservative Sat on the left side of the hall & called left-wing Opposed the king & the idea of a monarchy Wanted changes in gov’t & proposed common people have full power in a republic Sat in the center of the hall & were called centrists Wanted some changes in government, but not as many as the radicals Sat on the right side of the hall & were called right-wing Supported the a limited constitutional monarchy Wanted few changes in gov’t

8 Revolutionary Divisions: Factions Form
The factions of the Legislative Assembly disagreed…there were groups that are far more extreme Emigres—nobles that fled France during the peasant uprisings On the extreme right, wanted to undo the Revolution & restore the Old Regime Sans-Culottes—those w/o knee breeches, & were Parisian workers On the extreme left, and exerted their influence through the Jacobins

9 Quick Question Explain the differing political views in the Legislative Assembly. Who are emigres and sans-culottes, and what are their political views?

10 France at War European monarchs feared, rightfully so, that the peasant revolution of France would spread throughout Europe France declares war on Austria in April 1792 in response to an Austrian request to restore Louis XVI to the throne Prussia joined the war on the side of Austria The Prussian troops were on Paris’ edge when Parisians stormed the royal palace, killing the Swiss guards to imprison the royal family Revolutionaries couldn’t leave Paris to fight the war in fear that monarchists would recapture Paris is they left Sept. 1792, Parisians began killing over 1000 monarchists in prisons so they could not revolt

11 France at War Under pressure from the radicals the Legislative Assembly set aside the Constitution, deposed the king, called for a new legislature and ended constitutional monarchy in France In Sept. 1792, the new governing body was the National Convention By early 1793 Great Britain, Holland, & Spain joined Prussia & Austria in war w/ France Forced France to enact a draft to respond

12 Quick Question Why does France go to war with Austria and Prussia?

13 Radicals Execute the King
In the summer of 1792, the Paris mob had more power than any gov’t assembly Mobs were poor, but led by bourgeoisie Jacobins, radical political club of 1792 Radical middle class of men and women Violent speeches called for removal of king & establishment of a republic Jean Paul Marat, radical leader that edited a revolutionary paper Georges Danton, radical speaker & advocate for Paris’ poor

14 Radicals Execute the King
National Convention abolished monarchy on Sept. 21, 1792 & declared a republic Adult males could vote & serve office Louis was reduced to citizen & prisoner Jacobins forced Louis to be tried for treason…found him guilty & sentenced him to death Jan. 21, 1793, King Louis XVI was executed by guillotine

15 Quick Question What is the name of the Parisian workers that make up the Jacobins?

16 Reign of Terror Foreign enemies were one problem, but the Jacobins had many enemies w/in France Peasants (beheading of king), priests (gov’t control), rival leaders (vying for power) Maximilien Robespierre gained control of Jacobins in hopes to build “republic of virtue” Wanted to wipe out every trace of monarchy & nobility Closed churches in throughout France…opposed religion

17 Reign of Terror: Committee of Public Safety
Robespierre became leader in summer of 1793 Decided who would be considered enemies of Republic From governed France as a dictator during Reign of Terror The Committee executed thousands including Marie Antoinette, Danton, rival leaders, or any less radical than Robespierre 85% were peasants…who the revolution was supposed to benefit

18 Quick Question Why does the Committee of Public Safety execute some many people in the name of “virtue”?

19 End of the Terror July 1794, members of the National Convention feared for their lives & turned on Robespierre He was beheaded on July 28, 1794 Public opinion shifted to the right & in 1795 moderate leaders drafted a new constitution Power in upper-middle class Bicameral (2 houses) legislature Directory—5 man executive body New gov’t appointed Napoleon to command French army

20 Quick Question List and describe all five French governments discussed during this unit.

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