2 National Assembly Reforms Noblemen and clergy changed their sentiment by professing desire for equality and liberty…why?Declaration of the Rights of ManChurch ReformsLouis Tries to EscapeDo not copy this slide
3 Reforms: Declaration of the Rights of Man National Assembly adopts on Aug. 27, 1789Reflected the influence of the Enlightenment and Declaration of IndependenceGuaranteed citizens equal justice, freedom of speech, and freedom of religionDid not apply to womenOlympe de Gouges wrote Declaration of the Rights of Women, but was executed
4 Church Reforms National Assembly seized Church lands Church officials would now have to be elected by landowners, & paid as state employeeStripped wealth & political power from ChurchAllowed state to sell Church lands to pay debts, instead of tax bourgeoisiePeasants, being devout Catholics, rallied behind their priestsRole of church & state drove a wedge between peasants & bourgeoisie…peasants opposed any new revolutionary changes
5 Louis XVI FleesMany supporters of the King felt France unsafe and fled the countryIn June 1791, fearing for his life, King Louis XVI and his family tried to escape to the Austrian NetherlandsThey were recognized, and brought back to Paris under guard
6 Revolutionary Divisions: New Constitution The National Assembly took 2 years to create a new constitution in Sept. 1791Limited constitutional monarchy (executive)Created Legislative Assembly (legislative)King was force to sign into law
7 Revolutionary Divisions: Factions Form Problems continues; food shortages, large debt, and cries for more liberty & equalityLegislative AssemblyRadicalsModeratesConservativeSat on the left side of the hall & called left-wingOpposed the king & the idea of a monarchyWanted changes in gov’t & proposed common people have full power in a republicSat in the center of the hall & were called centristsWanted some changes in government, but not as many as the radicalsSat on the right side of the hall & were called right-wingSupported the a limited constitutional monarchyWanted few changes in gov’t
8 Revolutionary Divisions: Factions Form The factions of the Legislative Assembly disagreed…there were groups that are far more extremeEmigres—nobles that fled France during the peasant uprisingsOn the extreme right, wanted to undo the Revolution & restore the Old RegimeSans-Culottes—those w/o knee breeches, & were Parisian workersOn the extreme left, and exerted their influence through the Jacobins
9 Quick QuestionExplain the differing political views in the Legislative Assembly.Who are emigres and sans-culottes, and what are their political views?
10 France at WarEuropean monarchs feared, rightfully so, that the peasant revolution of France would spread throughout EuropeFrance declares war on Austria in April 1792 in response to an Austrian request to restore Louis XVI to the thronePrussia joined the war on the side of AustriaThe Prussian troops were on Paris’ edge when Parisians stormed the royal palace, killing the Swiss guards to imprison the royal familyRevolutionaries couldn’t leave Paris to fight the war in fear that monarchists would recapture Paris is they leftSept. 1792, Parisians began killing over 1000 monarchists in prisons so they could not revolt
11 France at WarUnder pressure from the radicals the Legislative Assembly set aside the Constitution, deposed the king, called for a new legislature and ended constitutional monarchy in FranceIn Sept. 1792, the new governing body was the National ConventionBy early 1793 Great Britain, Holland, & Spain joined Prussia & Austria in war w/ FranceForced France to enact a draft to respond
12 Quick QuestionWhy does France go to war with Austria and Prussia?
13 Radicals Execute the King In the summer of 1792, the Paris mob had more power than any gov’t assemblyMobs were poor, but led by bourgeoisieJacobins, radical political club of 1792Radical middle class of men and womenViolent speeches called for removal of king & establishment of a republicJean Paul Marat, radical leader that edited a revolutionary paperGeorges Danton, radical speaker & advocate for Paris’ poor
14 Radicals Execute the King National Convention abolished monarchy on Sept. 21, 1792 & declared a republicAdult males could vote & serve officeLouis was reduced to citizen & prisonerJacobins forced Louis to be tried for treason…found him guilty & sentenced him to deathJan. 21, 1793, King Louis XVI was executed by guillotine
15 Quick QuestionWhat is the name of the Parisian workers that make up the Jacobins?
16 Reign of TerrorForeign enemies were one problem, but the Jacobins had many enemies w/in FrancePeasants (beheading of king), priests (gov’t control), rival leaders (vying for power)Maximilien Robespierre gained control of Jacobins in hopes to build “republic of virtue”Wanted to wipe out every trace of monarchy & nobilityClosed churches in throughout France…opposed religion
17 Reign of Terror: Committee of Public Safety Robespierre became leader in summer of 1793Decided who would be considered enemies of RepublicFrom governed France as a dictator during Reign of TerrorThe Committee executed thousands including Marie Antoinette, Danton, rival leaders, or any less radical than Robespierre85% were peasants…who the revolution was supposed to benefit
18 Quick QuestionWhy does the Committee of Public Safety execute some many people in the name of “virtue”?
19 End of the TerrorJuly 1794, members of the National Convention feared for their lives & turned on RobespierreHe was beheaded on July 28, 1794Public opinion shifted to the right & in 1795 moderate leaders drafted a new constitutionPower in upper-middle classBicameral (2 houses) legislatureDirectory—5 man executive bodyNew gov’t appointed Napoleon to command French army
20 Quick QuestionList and describe all five French governments discussed during this unit.