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US HISTORY Note Page 24: Part A “ THE DEBATE OVER RECONSTRUCTION” By Morgan J. Burris and Jenny Smith.

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Presentation on theme: "US HISTORY Note Page 24: Part A “ THE DEBATE OVER RECONSTRUCTION” By Morgan J. Burris and Jenny Smith."— Presentation transcript:

1 US HISTORY Note Page 24: Part A “ THE DEBATE OVER RECONSTRUCTION” By Morgan J. Burris and Jenny Smith

2 Lincoln’s Plan  Lincoln’s plan was the “10 %” plan, where 10% of Southerners had to take an oath of loyalty to the Union; it was ‘moderate’ and did not punish the South  Johnson also believed in AMNESTY, but made it harder for former Confederate military officers or office holders to get a pardon

3 By 1865...  When Congress met in December 1865, Northern Republicans were shocked to see the same Confederate officers and political leaders as before the war  Republicans also were angered when Southern states passed a series of BLACK CODES, which severely limited African Americans’ rights in the South

4 Republicans Take Over  They refused to seat at Congress and formed the Joint Committee on Reconstruction  14 th Amendment= granted citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the US and said that no STATE could deprive a person of life, liberty or the pursuit of happiness  Passed Congress in June 1866 and was sent to states for ratification

5 Elections of 1866  Johnson attacked the 14 th Amendment  Elections of 1866 had widespread violence as whites tried to prevent African Americans from voting  However, Republicans won a large majority (3 to 1 in Congress) so they can now override the President’s vetoes

6 Military Reconstruction March 1867 Congress passed the Military Reconstruction Acts which wiped out Johnson’s plan Act divided former CSA into 5 military districts with a Union general in control of each


8 Each Confederate state had to hold another convention and rewrite their constitution and ratify the 14th amendment before they could elect people to Congress

9 Republican Rule= Success?? With the military officers supervising the registration of voters, the Southern states held fair elections and wrote new constitutions With African Americans voting, the Republican Party took power in the South and implemented many reforms They repealed black codes, made local elections more democratic, established local schools, rebuilt roads and railways.

10 During Reconstruction many Northerners moved to the South CARPETBAGGERS = nickname given to those northerners who moved south because they carried suitcases made of carpet fabric (had a bad meaning, because many thought they only came to exploit the region) SCALAWAGS= a nickname for Southerners who worked with the Republican Party and supported Reconstruction Vocab

11 Impeachment of Johnson  Johnson was against Congress run Reconstruction and Republican rule  Even though Republicans had enough votes to override his vetoes, he still could refuse to enforce their new laws  To prevent Johnson from firing their supporters, Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act  Act required the Senate to approve the removal of any governmental official

12 Johnson Tests the Act Determined to challenge the new Act, Johnson fired his Secretary of War, Edwin M. Stanton in Feb. 1868 Stanton barricaded himself in his office for three days and refused to leave Congress voted to IMPEACH Johnson, charging him with ‘high crimes and misdemeanors’ They argued since he had violated the Tenure of Office Act and removed 4 army commanders in charge of military districts that supported Republicans, that he was trying to undermine Reconstruction

13 The Impeachment Trial The Senate held a trial for Johnson If two-thirds of Senators found the President guilty he would be removed from office May 1868 Senate voted one vote short of a conviction (35 to 19)

14 Election of 1868 Impeachment Trial hurt Johnson’s popularity and he lost the Election of 1868 to former Union general, GRANT Republicans remained the majority in Congress as well thanks to African Americans being able to safely vote in large numbers under military protection

15 15 th Amendment With a Republican majority firmly established in Congress, and a president who supported them, the Republicans passed the 15 th Amendment 15 th = declared the right to vote can not be denied based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude March 1870, enough states had ratified the Amendment to make it part of the Constitution Continued Republican success and power angered many Southern whites who began to fight back with violence


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