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Congressional Reconstruction

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1 Congressional Reconstruction
US History

2 Objectives B3d -Evaluate different Reconstruction plans and their social, economic, and political impact on the South and the rest of the United States  B3e- Analyze the immediate and long-term influences of Reconstruction on the lives of African Americans and U.S. society as a whole

3 I. Lincoln Ten Percent Plan/Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction
Reconciliation instead of punishment Amnesty to those who took an oath of alliegence to the Union Once 10% of population took oath a new state govt could be organized. 1. Exception – confederate govt officials and those who had left their posts during war

4 I. Lincoln Resistance Radical Republicans
Thaddeus Stevens and others did not want to reconcile with the South Wade Davis Bill – Required an ironclad oath of alliegience Punished former Confederate govt officials Congress passed, was vetoed by Lincoln

5 I. Lincoln Freedman’s Bureau
Federal agency to help with crisis in the South Feeding, clothing and supporting war refugees in the South. Negotiated labor contracts Worked to educate former slaves

6 II. Problems with Johnson
Johnson’s Plan Closely resembled Lincoln’s plan Pardon those who took oath Return their property Required ratification of 13th amendment Southern voters had elected dozens of Confederate leaders to Congress

7 II. Problems with Johnson
B. Black Codes New Southern state legislatures passed laws known as black codes to limit the rights of African Americans in the South. This leads to more Republicans joining the radicals and challenging Johnson.

8 II. Problems with Johnson
C. Veto Congress enacted two bills designed to help former slaves. Both of these bills were vetoed by President Johnson Civil Rights Act of 1866 – equal benefit of all laws Extending the life of the Freedmen’s Bureau

9 Johnson

10 II. Problems with Johnson
D. 14th Amendment Defines citizenship as anyone who is born or naturalized in the United States. Prohibits any state from denying citizens due process or equal protection of the law. Johnson adamantly spoke against the amendment

11 14th Amendment

12 III. Congressional Reconstruction
Military Reconstruction Act Divided the confederacy into 5 districts A Union general was placed in charge of each district. New state constitutions had to give the right to vote to all male citizens. States had to ratify the 14th Amendment.

13 Military Reconstruction

14 IV. Johnson’s Impeachment
Congressional Power In the election of 1866, Congress had won enough power to override any presidential veto. Congress passed 2 new laws to prevent Johnson from interfering with reconstruction Command of the Army Act – required all orders to go through the headquarters of the army Tenure of Office Act – require the Senates approval of the removal of any government official

15 Military Reconstruction Act

16 III. Johnson’s Impeachment
Congressional Power Johnson fired a key government official without the permission of the Senate. Congress immediately votes to impeach Johnson. In May of 1868, Senate voted that Johnson was guilty of high crimes and misdemeanors, but was one vote short of impeachment.

17 Johnson’s Impeachment

18 IV. Election of 1868 Grant Johnson remained quietly in office until the election of 1868. Republicans nominated Grant. Who was well in favor of African Americans in the South Grant’s victory led to the expansion of reconstruction in the South and the passage of the 15th Amendment. A. 15th Amendment – the right to vote shall not be denied based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

19 V. Republican Rule in the South
Carpetbaggers and Scalawags Large number of Northerners traveled to the south. Southerners referred to these newcomers as Carpetbaggers. Southerners who worked with Republicans and supported Reconstruction were called scalawags Both were not welcome by former confederates.

20 Carpetbagger

21 V. Republican Rule in the South
Reform African Americans worked to improve their lives through education. Many Southerners had a difficult time adjusting. Secret organizations were formed to undermine republican rule. A. Ku Klux Klan – rode in bands at night terrorizing teachers, carpetbaggers, freed men, and those who supported Republican rule

22 Grant

23 VI. Reconstruction Ends
Grant Administration Lack of political experience helped to divide the political party. Series of scandals helped to damage his reputation. Nation’s economic depression was deepening and the North grew tired of Reconstruction in the south.

24 VI. Reconstruction Ends
Compromise of 1877 Disputed electoral votes eventually lead to a compromise Rutherford B. Hayes received disputed votes and becomes president and in return he agreed to removed federal troops form the South.

25 Compromise of 1877

26 VII. New South African Americans lose ground
South soon returned to the white mans rule African American schools were closed due to lack of funding Freed men were forced in labor contracts A. Sharecropping Tenant Farming States passed Jim Crowe laws with further segregated blacks and whites Poll tax Literacy tests

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