2 Introduction Ser Estar Today in Spanish, we are learning about two very important and useful verbs: Ser and Estar. Listen to this clip to learn more about our topic.Single click speaker to hear audio clip >>>>
3 Table of Contents I. Vocabulary and English parts of speech review II. Uses of serPermanent things: names, basic characteristics, time and date, origin and nationality, professionsIII. Uses of estarTemporary things: physical conditions, locations, emotional conditionsIV. Comparison and conjugationsWe’ll learn these two verbs by reviewing them first in English. Then, we’ll go over the uses of ser and estar and examine the differences between the two.
4 Official Spanish Speaking Countries Ser and Estar are very important to know because they’re used in many places. Spanish is the official language in the following twenty countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Spain, Uruguay, and Venezuela.
5 Vocabulary Spanish English abierta open el asistente the assistant el bañothe bathroomcansadotiredla casathe houseLet’s take a look at some of the vocabulary that you will encounter throughout this presentation: abierta means open, el asistente means the assistant, el baño is the Spanish word for the bathroom, cansado means tired, and la casa is Spanish for the house.(Note: The gender of the vocabulary shown in this PowerPoint® only pertains to specific examples in this material.)
6 Vocabulary Spanish English el concierto the concert los elefantes the elephantsenfermosickfríacoldfuriosofuriousEl concierto means the concert, los elefantes are the elephants, enfermo means sick, fría is the Spanish word for cold, and furioso means furious.
7 Vocabulary Spanish English el jefe the boss julio July el libro the booklunesMondaymañanatomorrowEl jefe is Spanish for the boss, julio is the word for the month of July, el libro means the book, lunes is Spanish for Monday, and mañana means tomorrow.
8 Vocabulary Spanish English el médico the doctor la puerta the door la sopathe soupla tiendathe storela ventanathe windowEl médico is the doctor, la puerta means the door, la sopa is Spanish for the soup, la tienda is the store, and la ventana is the Spanish word for the window. Now let’s put some of those words to use as we learn about two more essential words: ser and estar.
9 Ser and Estar Ser and Estar: Spanish verbs for “to be” In Spanish, there are two verbs that can be translated as “to be.” These two verbs are ser and estar. Listen to this clip to learn about the differences between these two verbs.Single click speaker to hear audio clip >>>>
10 To Be… I am we are you are you-all are he/she is they are I am, you are, he or she is, we are, you-all are, and they are, are the conjugations of the verb “to be” in English.
11 Parts of Speech Review: Nouns Person, place, thing, or ideaExample: Connor is going to Sandusky to ride the rollercoaster.Part of knowing when to use ser or estar relies on your ability to distinguish between nouns, verbs, and adjectives. Let’s review those three parts of speech in English before we move on with ser and estar. A noun names a person, place, thing, or idea. In the sample sentence, Connor is going to Sandusky to ride the rollercoaster, Connor, Sandusky, and rollercoaster are all nouns.
12 Parts of Speech Review: Verbs Indicates actionExample: Courtney reads books to the children.A verb indicates action. In the sample sentence, Courtney reads books to the children, reads is the verb.
13 Parts of Speech Review: Adjectives Modifies a nounDescriptive wordsExample: Casey picked out a blue dress to wear to the dance.An adjective modifies a noun. Often adjectives are defined as descriptive words. In the sample sentence, Casey picked out a blue dress to wear to the dance, blue is the adjective. Blue describes the color of the dress.
14 Adjectives“To be” followed by adjective: verb can change meaning of adjectiveLet’s go over adjective rules that will help us with ser and estar. When the verb “to be” is followed by an adjective, the verb can actually change the meaning of the adjective.
15 Adjectives ExampleEl profesor está aburrido. (The professor is bored.)El profesor es aburrido (The professor is boring.)Take this sentence for example. 1. El profesor está aburrido. / The professor is bored. 2. El profesor es aburrido. / The professor is boring. Whether you use estar or ser totally changes the meaning of the sentence. There is a huge difference between a boring professor and a professor that is bored. Just sit in on a boring professor’s class for a few minutes and you will certainly appreciate the importance of choosing the correct verb!
16 Adjective Guidelines: Verb “to be” followed by adjective: verb used depends upon meaningIf the verb “to be” is followed by an adjective, the verb used depends upon the meaning.
17 Adjective Guidelines: Referring to essential characteristic: serReferring to a state or condition: estarWhen referring to an essential characteristic, use ser. When referring to a state or condition, use estar.
18 Referring to Example La sopa está fría. The soup is cold. Here are two examples:1. La sopa está fría. / The soup is cold.2. Los elefantes son grandes. / The elephants are big.You’ll learn more about these conjugations later.Los elefantes son grandes. The elephants are big.
19 When to Use… What… How… If talking about what something is: ser If talking about how something is: estarWhat…How…Use ser if you are talking about what something is. If you are talking about how something is, use estar.
20 Ser: Essential Quality Ser address essentialSer is irregularTo address an essential quality, use ser. This means how someone “is.” Ser is an irregular and standard conjugation rules do not apply. The conjugations for ser need to be memorized.
21 Ser Conjugated Form soy somos eres sois es son Conjugated, ser includes soy, eres, es, somos, sois, and son.
22 Use Ser for … Permanent things Names Basic characteristics Time and dateOrigin and nationalityProfessionsSer is used for permanent things. These include names, basic characteristics, time and date, origin and nationality, and professions. We’ll look more closely at each of these uses.
23 Video ClipWatch this video for a quick overview of some of the uses for ser.Single click screen to view video clip
24 Names Use ser when introducing yourself Example: Yo soy María. Yo soy Pablo.When you introduce yourself to someone, you say “Yo soy María” or “Yo soy Pablo.” Ser is used for names because your name is something you, most likely, will always have.
25 Basic Characteristics Describing a nounDescription does not change in some casesExample:She is Mexican.He is American.Use ser to describe basic characteristics about a person, place or thing. This means you would use ser for size, length, religion, color, or personality, to name a few possibilities. Those things do not change at all in some cases. For example: She is Mexican. He is American.
26 Basic Characteristics Change can be gradualExample: Ana es joven. (Ana is young.)Also use ser when the change is gradual and slow. For example: Ana is young. She obviously won’t be young forever, but because the change is gradual, we use the verb ser.
27 Time and Date Express time, dates, days of the week Example: 1. Son las cinco (It is 5:00.)2. Es el cuatro de julio. (It is the 4th of July.)3. Es lunes. (It is Monday.)Use ser when expressing the time, dates, and days of the week. For example: 1. Son las cinco. (It is 5:00.) This example shows the time. 2. Es el cuatro de julio. (It is the 4th of July.) Sample two shows the date. 3. Es lunes. (It is Monday.) Sample three shows the day of the week.
28 Video ClipWatch this clip on using ser for expressing the time and date.Single click screen to view video clip
29 Origin and Nationality Show originExample: Él es de Cuba. (He is from Cuba.)Show of what something is madeExample: La camisa es de seda. (The shirt is made of silk.)Use ser when showing origin. For example: Él es de Cuba. (He is from Cuba.) This sentence indicates that the subject’s country of origin is Cuba. Also use ser to show of what something is made. For example: La camisa es de seda. (The shirt is made of silk.) This sentence shows of what type of material the shirt is made.
30 Ownership To show possession Example: El libro es de Miguel. (The book is Miguel’s.)Also use ser when showing possession or ownership. For example: El libro es de Miguel. (The book is Miguel’s.) This sentence shows that Miguel owns, or possesses, the book.
31 Professions VideoWatch this clip on using ser when talking about professions.Single click screen to view video clip
32 Estar: Conditions To address condition: estar Estar is an irregular verbEstar is also an irregular verb. It does not follow the standard rules of conjugation for regular -ar verbs. Since rules don’t apply, you must memorize the conjugations. Listen to this clip for a brief overview of the uses of estar.Single click speaker to hear audio clip >>>>
33 Estar Conjugated Form estoy estamos estás estáis está están Listen to this audio clip about the conjugation of estar. Estar conjugated includes estoy, estás, está, estamos, estáis, and están.Single click speaker to hear audio clip >>>>
34 Use Estar for … Temporary things Temporary physical conditions LocationTemporary emotional conditionsEstar is the other “to be” verb. Estar differs from ser because it is used for temporary things, like physical conditions, location, and emotional conditions.
35 VideoEstar is used for temporary physical conditions. Watch this clip to learn more.Single click screen to view video clip
36 Location To express location/position Use estar to express location or position. This applies whether it is temporary or permanent.
37 Location/Position Yo estoy en la tienda. (I am in the store.) Ella está conmigo. (She is with me.)Madrid está en España. (Madrid is in Spain.)Here are a few location or position examples. 1. Yo estoy en la tienda. (I am in the store.) 2. Ella está conmigo. (She is with me.) 3. Madrid está en España. (Madrid is in Spain.) All three sentences express some degree of location or position.
38 Location Video Watch this clip about using estar to show location. Single click screen to view video clip
39 Temporary ConditionsTo describe a TEMPORARY condition or feeling of a person or thingUse estar to describe a temporary condition or feeling of a person or thing. If it’s temporary, it will change.
40 Temporary Condition or Feeling Tú estás enfermo. (You are sick.)La puerta está cerrada. (The door is closed.)Luis está cansado. (Luis is tired.)La ventana está abierta. (The window is open.)For example: 1. Tú estás enfermo. (You are sick.) You won’t be sick forever, hopefully, so that is a condition that will change. 2. La puerta está cerrada. (The door is closed.) The door won’t stay closed forever, or it wouldn’t be much of a door. 3. Luis está cansado. (Luis is tired.) Eventually, Luis will gain energy. 4. La ventana está abierta. (The window is open.) The window won’t always be open. All of these examples show situations where things are temporary, or not permanent.
41 Comparing Ser & Estar ser estar ser Describing origin: ser Describing location: estarestarserNow that you’ve learned the basic rules for ser and estar, let’s compare the two verbs. Origin, location, and taking place may all seem to do with “where,” but they don’t all use the same verb. As discussed in this audio clip, to describe origin, or where something is from, use ser. To describe location, or where something is located right now, use estar.Single click speaker to hear audio clip >>>>
42 Origin and Location Mónica es de España. (origin) Mónica está en Venezuela. (location)La fiesta es en la casa de Mónica. (taking place)Take a look at these examples. 1. Mónica es de España. This sentence indicates that Mónica is from, or originated, in Spain. 2. Mónica está en Venezuela. This sentence indicates that Mónica is currently in, or located in, Venezuela. 3. La fiesta es en la casa de Mónica. This sentence indicates that a party is taking place in Mónica’s house.
43 Ser & Estar Review Estar Ser Ser is used for: Names Basic characteristicsTime and dateOrigin and nationalityProfessionsEstar is used for:Temporary physical conditionsLocationTemporary emotional conditionsEstarLet’s review ser and estar one more time. Ser is used for permanent things, like names, basic characteristics, time and date, origin and nationality, and professions. Estar is for temporary things, such as physical conditions, location, and emotional conditions.Ser
44 Practice 1. He is bored. A) Él es aburrido. B) Él está aburrido. Test your knowledge of ser and estar. Which sentence is best for the English translation?He is bored. Él es aburrido or Él está aburrido?He is boring. Él es aburrido or Él está aburrido?2. He is boring.A) Él es aburrido. B) Él está aburrido.
45 Practice Answers 1. B) Él está aburrido. 2. A) Él es aburrido. Let’s see if we’re right!1. B) Él está aburrido. He is bored.2. A) Él es aburrido. He is boring.
46 Practice Questions: Ser & Estar Diego (es, está) de Madrid pero ahora (es, está) estudiando en Salamanca.El jefe (es, está) furioso porque su asistente (es, está) muy desorganizado hoy.El concierto va a (ser, estar) mañana. Los músicos (son, están) peruanos.Choose the correct answer:1. Diego (es, está) de Madrid pero ahora (es, está) estudiando en Salamanca. 2. El jefe (es, está) furioso porque su asistente (es, está) muy desorganizado hoy El concierto va a (ser, estar) mañana. Los músicos (son, están) peruanos.
47 Ser & Estar Answers 1) es, está 2) está, está 3) ser, son Let’s check the answers. Are we correct?1) es, está2) está, está3) ser, son
48 Practice Questions 1) Yo _________ estudiante. 2) Ella __________ en el baño.3) Nosotras no _______de Cuba.4) Tú _________ médico.5) Alba no _________tonta.Now see if you can fill in the blank.1) Yo _________ estudiante.2) Ella __________ en el baño.3) Nosotras no _______de Cuba.4) Tú _________ médico.5) Alba no _________tonta.
49 Ser and Estar Answers 1) Yo _ soy ____ estudiante. 2) Ella __ está __ en el baño.3) Nosotras no _ somos ____de Cuba.4) Tú _ eres __ médico.5) Alba no __es ___tonta.Let’s go over the answers:1) Yo ___SOY______ estudiante.2) Ella ___ESTÁ_________ en el baño.3) Nosotras no __SOMOS_____de Cuba.4) Tú ___ERES______ médico.5) Alba no ___ES______tonta.1) soy2) está3) somos4) eres5) es
50 Ser Singular yo soy - I am tú eres - you are Ud. es - you are (formal) él es - he isella es - she isFor review, this graph shows the singular conjugations for ser. (Ser singular) yo soy—I am, tú eres—you are, Ud. es—you are (formal), él es—he is, ella es—she is.
51 Ud. está - you are (formal) Estar Singularyo estoy - I amtú estás - you areUd. está - you are (formal)él está - he isella está - she is(Estar singular) yo estoy—I am, tú estás—you are, Ud. está—you are (formal), él está—he is, ella está—she is.
52 nosotros/as somos - we are vosotros/as sois - you all are Ser Pluralnosotros/as somos - we arevosotros/as sois - you all areUds. son - you all areellos son - they areellas son - they areThis graph shows the plural conjugations for ser. (Ser plural) nosotros/as somos—we are, vosotros/as sois—you all are, Uds. son—you all are, ellos son—they are, ellas son—they are.
53 nosotros/as estamos - we are vosotros/as estáis - you all are Estar Pluralnosotros/as estamos - we arevosotros/as estáis - you all areUds. están - you all areellos están - they areellas están - they areHere is estar plural. (Estar plural) nosotros/as estamos—we are, vosotros/as estáis—you all are, Uds. están—you all are, ellos están—they are, ellas están—they are.
54 Final Thoughts Ser and Estar Refer and review The differences between ser and estar can seem confusing. Don’t be overwhelmed! Refer to the conjugation charts when reviewing and practicing. In time, you will have memorized the conjugations and will no longer be dependent upon the charts.
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