Published byAllison Arundel Modified over 8 years ago
Heat Transfer, Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Notes
How does the Earth get heated?
Energy transfer from the sun
Energy The ability to do work or cause change Temperature Gas
The average amount of energy of motion of each molecule (the measure of how hot or cold something is) Gas Moving particles, the hotter they get the faster they move
The atmosphere moves energy
Energy moves by heat transfer There are 3 types of heat transfer Conduction Convection Radiation
Conduction The transfer of heat energy from one substance to another through DIRECT contact The Earth’s surface heats the air (gas) molecules directing above it Molecules of air gain energy when they collide with the molecules in grains of hot sand.
Convection Transfer of energy from place to place by the motion of gas or liquid (fluids) Up and down movement of molecules not the side to side movement
Density and Convection
The atmosphere gets less dense at higher altitudes Warm air is less dense than cold air Warm air has more energy, so molecules move faster than cold ones This makes them collide more, then they spread out More space between molecules = less dense
Radiation The transfer of the Sun’s energy to the Earth’s surface
Solar radiation heats both the surface and the air Includes visible light Earth’s surface gives off a type of invisible radiation called Infrared radiation
Earth’s absorption of Radiation
30% of incoming solar energy is reflected by clouds 70% is absorbed and becomes different forms of energy Absorbed by oceans, landforms, and living things (photosynthesis and respiration) This absorbed energy heats the Earth’s surface
Transfer of Energy
Gases Absorb and Give Off Radiation
The Atmosphere affects light in 4 ways. Absorbs Light Reflects Light Lets Light Pass Through Emits (Gives Off) Light On sunny days more visible light gets to the earths surface. On cloudy days clouds reflect and absorb most of the sunlight
Forms of Radiation We Cant See
Ultraviolet Radiation More energy than the light you can see Can cause sunburns and other damage Infrared Radiation Less energy than the light you can see Warms the materials that absorb it
Ozone Layer Protects Life
Ozone - O3 Ozone in stratosphere is called the ozone layer Protects life on Earth Absorbs harmful ultraviolet radiation from sun Too much can cause sunburn, skin cancer, and can harm crops, plastic or paint Lets other types of radiation like visible light through
Greenhouse Effect Animation Keeps Earth Warm
Slow the movement of energy away from the Earth’s surface Greenhouse gases Includes carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and nitrous oxide Gases mix with gases in the air like nitrogen and oxygen. Not its own layer Found in the troposphere Absorbs and emits infrared radiation Animation
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