Solar Energy & the Atmosphere
Earth’s atmosphere is heated by the _______________________from the sun.
Energy is transferred two ways:
Directly: __________ of the sun’s rays by ___________ in atmosphere. ____________: Oceans & land absorb energy then __________ that energy as __________.
Radiation All _______________ received on earth comes from the sun as ____________. Radiation: _______ forms of energy that travel through ___________ as __________. Waves are __________ by wave___________. A wavelength is measured from _______ __ _______.
_________________ _________: All of the frequencies or wavelengths of ___________________ radiation.
The Atmosphere & Solar Radiation
The atmosphere ___________ solar radiation in several ways. The __________ atmosphere __________ most radiation that has ___________ wavelengths than visible light. Molecules (nitrogen & oxygen) in _____________ and _____________ absorb X- rays, gamma rays and UV rays Most of the solar rays that reach the ________ atmosphere, such as ___________ and infrared waves, have _____________ wavelengths.
Radiation _________ in two manners as it enters the _____________:
Scattering Clouds, dust, water droplets, and molecules in the atmosphere _____________ the paths of radiation from the sun and cause ______________. Scattering occurs when particles and gas molecules in the atmosphere reflect and ____________ solar rays. This deflection causes the rays to travel out in all _______________.
Reflection Albedo: the ____________ of solar radiation that is reflected off the _____________ of an object. The amount of energy that is absorbed or reflected depends on characteristics such as ____________ Texture Composition Volume & mass Transparency State of matter _________________ of the material on which the solar radiation falls. The intensity and _____________ that a surface material receives radiation also affects how much energy is reflected or absorbed.
Absorption & Infrared Energy
Solar radiation that is not reflected is ___________ by Rocks, _______, ________, and other surface materials. Gas __________ in the atmosphere. The absorption of _____________ energy from the ground heats the _____________ atmosphere and keeps Earth’s surface much warmer than it would be if there were no atmosphere.
Sometimes warm air near the earth’s surface, bends light rays & produces an effect called ______________.
The Greenhouse Effect Greenhouse effect: the warming of the surface and lower atmosphere of Earth that occurs when _______________, ____________, and other gases in the air absorb and ___________ radiation.
Earth’s atmosphere _________ the escape of energy that radiates from Earth’s surface.
Human Impact on the Greenhouse Effect
However, human activities may change this __________ and may cause the average temperature of the atmosphere to ____________. Increases in the amount of carbon dioxide may _____________ the greenhouse effect and may cause Earth to become warmer in some areas and cooler in others.
_____________ the transfer of energy as heat ______________ a material
The molecules in a substance move ____________ as they become heated. ___________ between the particles result in the transfer of energy, which __________ the substance. Conduction heats only the lowest few __________ of the atmosphere, where air comes into __________ contact with the warmed surface of Earth.
Convection occurs when gases or liquids are heated _____________.
Convection the movement of ___________ due to differences in ___________ caused by temperature variations can result in the transfer of energy as _______ Convection occurs when gases or liquids are heated _____________. The continuous ______ in which cold air ______ and warm air _____ warms Earth’s atmosphere evenly.
Variation in Temperature
The temperature of the atmosphere in any ___________ on Earth’s surface depends on several factors, including _________ _________ features and the ________ Pressure differences, which are the result of the __________ heating that causes convection, create ___________.
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