2 Earth’s atmosphere is heated by the _______________________from the sun.
3 Energy is transferred two ways: Directly: __________ of the sun’s rays by ___________ in atmosphere.____________: Oceans & land absorb energy then __________ that energy as __________.
4 RadiationAll _______________ received on earth comes from the sun as ____________.Radiation: _______ forms of energy that travel through ___________ as __________.Waves are __________ by wave___________.A wavelength is measured from _______ __ _______.
5 _________________ _________: _________________ _________:All of the frequencies or wavelengths of ___________________ radiation.
6 The Atmosphere & Solar Radiation The atmosphere ___________ solar radiation in several ways.The __________ atmosphere __________ most radiation that has ___________ wavelengths than visible light.Molecules (nitrogen & oxygen) in _____________ and _____________ absorb X- rays, gamma rays and UV raysMost of the solar rays that reach the ________ atmosphere, such as ___________ and infrared waves, have _____________ wavelengths.
7 Radiation _________ in two manners as it enters the _____________: Reflects
8 ScatteringClouds, dust, water droplets, and molecules in the atmosphere _____________ the paths of radiation from the sun and cause ______________.Scattering occurs when particles and gas molecules in the atmosphere reflect and ____________ solar rays.This deflection causes the rays to travel out in all _______________.
9 ReflectionAlbedo: the ____________ of solar radiation that is reflected off the _____________ of an object.The amount of energy that is absorbed or reflected depends on characteristics such as____________TextureCompositionVolume & massTransparencyState of matter_________________ of the material on which the solar radiation falls.The intensity and _____________ that a surface material receives radiation also affects how much energy is reflected or absorbed.
10 Absorption & Infrared Energy Solar radiation that is not reflected is ___________ byRocks, _______, ________, and other surface materials.Gas __________ in the atmosphere.The absorption of _____________ energy from the ground heats the _____________ atmosphere and keeps Earth’s surface much warmer than it would be if there were no atmosphere.
11 Sometimes warm air near the earth’s surface, bends light rays & produces an effect called ______________.
12 The Greenhouse EffectGreenhouse effect: the warming of the surface and lower atmosphere of Earth that occurs when _______________, ____________, and other gases in the air absorb and ___________ radiation.
13 Earth’s atmosphere _________ the escape of energy that radiates from Earth’s surface.
14 Human Impact on the Greenhouse Effect However, human activities may change this __________ and may cause the average temperature of the atmosphere to ____________.Increases in the amount of carbon dioxide may _____________ the greenhouse effect and may cause Earth to become warmer in some areas and cooler in others.
15 _____________ the transfer of energy as heat ______________ a material The molecules in a substance move ____________ as they become heated.___________ between the particles result in the transfer of energy, which __________ the substance.Conduction heats only the lowest few __________ of the atmosphere, where air comes into __________ contact with the warmed surface of Earth.
16 Convection occurs when gases or liquids are heated _____________. Convection the movement of ___________ due to differences in ___________caused by temperature variationscan result in the transfer of energy as _______Convection occurs when gases or liquids are heated _____________.The continuous ______ in which cold air ______ and warm air _____ warms Earth’s atmosphere evenly.
17 Variation in Temperature The temperature of the atmosphere in any ___________ on Earth’s surface depends on several factors,including __________________ featuresand the ________Pressure differences, which are the result of the __________ heating that causes convection, create ___________.