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Purpose: Students will view examples of classical conditioning.

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Presentation on theme: "Purpose: Students will view examples of classical conditioning."— Presentation transcript:

1 Purpose: Students will view examples of classical conditioning.
Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY Chapter 6 Learning Worth Publishers Purpose: Students will view examples of classical conditioning. Success Criteria: Students can create their own example of a classical conditioning experiment.

2 Learning Learning relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience

3 Association We learn by association Associative Learning
Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence Aristotle 2000 years ago John Locke and David Hume 200 years ago Associative Learning learning that two events occur together two stimuli a response and its consequences

4 Association Learning to associate two events Event 1 Event 2
Sea snail associates splash with a tail shock Seal learns to expect a snack for its showy antics

5 Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning
We learn to associate two stimuli

6 Operant Conditioning We learn to associate a response and its consequence

7 Video Classical Conditioning and the Office

8 Classical Conditioning
Ivan Pavlov Russian physician/ neurophysiologist Nobel Prize in 1904 studied digestive secretions

9 Pavlov’s Classic Experiment
Before Conditioning UCS (food in mouth) Neutral stimulus (tone) UCR (salivation) No salivation During Conditioning After Conditioning UCS (food in mouth) CS (tone) Neutral stimulus (tone) UCR (salivation) CR (salivation)

10 Classical Conditioning
Pavlov’s device for recording salivation

11 Video Pavlov

12 Classical Conditioning
organism comes to associate two stimuli a neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus

13 Behaviorism John B. Watson viewed psychology as objective science
generally agreed-upon consensus today recommended study of behavior without reference to unobservable mental processes not universally accepted by all schools of thought today

14 Video Little Albert

15 Classical Conditioning
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) stimulus that unconditionally--automatically and naturally--triggers a response Unconditioned Response (UCR) unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus salivation when food is in the mouth

16 Classical Conditioning
Conditioned Stimulus (CS) originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response Conditioned Response (CR) learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus

17 Classical Conditioning
Acquisition the initial stage in classical conditioning the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response in operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response

18 Classical Conditioning
UCS (passionate kiss) UCR (sexual arousal) CS (onion breath) CR Kiss)

19 Classical Conditioning
Extinction diminishing of a CR in classical conditioning, when a UCS does not follow a CS in operant conditioning, when a response is no longer reinforced

20 Classical Conditioning
Strength of CR Pause Acquisition (CS+UCS) Extinction (CS alone) Spontaneous recovery of CR

21 Classical Conditioning
Spontaneous Recovery reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished CR Generalization tendency for stimuli similar to CS to elicit similar responses

22 Classical Conditioning
Discrimination in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a CS and other stimuli that do not signal a UCS

23 Generalization Drops of saliva in 30 seconds 60 50 40 30 20 10 Hind
Hind paw Pelvis Shoulder Front Thigh Trunk Foreleg Part of body stimulated

24 Nausea Conditioning in Cancer Patients
UCS (drug) UCR (nausea) CS (waiting room) CR

25 Classical Conditioning
With your neighbor, create a Classical Conditioning experiment. Please include: US CS CR UR Hypothesis for reaction Extinction plan 

26 Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning Law of Effect
type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment Law of Effect Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely

27 Operant Conditioning Operant Behavior Respondent Behavior
operates (acts) on environment produces consequences Respondent Behavior occurs as an automatic response to stimulus behavior learned through classical conditioning

28 Operant Conditioning B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
elaborated Thorndike’s Law of Effect developed behavioral technology

29 Operant Chamber Skinner Box
chamber with a bar or key that an animal manipulates to obtain a food or water reinforcer contains devices to record responses

30 Operant Conditioning Reinforcer Shaping
any event that strengthens the behavior it follows Shaping operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer approximations of a desired goal

31 Operant Conditioning

32 Video Big Bang Theory

33 Operant Conditioning Experiment
Boo…Hiss…What the heck

34 Principles of Reinforcement
Primary Reinforcer innately reinforcing stimulus i.e., satisfies a biological need Conditioned Reinforcer stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with primary reinforcer secondary reinforcer

35 Schedules of Reinforcement
Continuous Reinforcement reinforcing the desired response each time it occurs Partial (Intermitent) Reinforcement reinforcing a response only part of the time results in slower acquisition greater resistance to extinction

36 Schedules of Reinforcement
Fixed Ratio (FR) reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses faster you respond the more rewards you get different ratios very high rate of responding like piecework pay

37 Schedules of Reinforcement
Variable Ratio (VR) reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses average ratios like gambling, fishing very hard to extinguish because of unpredictability

38 Schedules of Reinforcement
Fixed Interval (FI) reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed response occurs more frequently as the anticipated time for reward draws near

39 Schedules of Reinforcement
Variable Interval (VI) reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals produces slow steady responding like pop quiz

40 Schedules of Reinforcement
Variable Interval Number of responses 1000 750 500 250 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Time (minutes) Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Fixed Interval Steady responding Rapid responding near time for reinforcement 80

41 Punishment Punishment
aversive event that decreases the behavior that it follows powerful controller of unwanted behavior

42 Punishment

43 Cognition and Operant Conditioning
Cognitive Map mental representation of the layout of one’s environment Example: after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it Latent Learning learning that occurs, but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it

44 Latent Learning

45 Cognition and Operant Conditioning
Overjustification Effect the effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do the person may now see the reward, rather than intrinsic interest, as the motivation for performing the task

46 Cognition and Operant Conditioning
Intrinsic Motivation Desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective Extrinsic Motivation Desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishments

47 Operant vs Classical Conditioning

48 Observational Learning
learning by observing others Modeling process of observing and imitating a specific behavior Prosocial Behavior positive, constructive, helpful behavior opposite of antisocial behavior

49 Observational Learning
Mirror Neurons frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy

50 Conditioning and Racism
Instructions: write your own answer for 3-5 minutes without talking. “How could classical or operant conditioning explain racist behavior?”

51 Conditioning and Racism
Volunteers to share? UCS - UCR CS+ UCS - UCR CS - CR violence - fear Race + violence - fear race - fear Do you think this type of conditioning happens? Share examples? (Observational learning) Could this model happen through the media? How? Does it happen on the evening news? How can we apply extinction? Concept: The behavior experiments I talk about in the learning unit mostly use animals (rats and pigeons) as subjects. The demonstration shows students that the same principles apply to human learning and demonstrate the power of conditioning on an important concept students are familiar with: racism. Materials: Students need knowledge of classical and operant conditioning, and you will need to display the question (below). Instructions: After students learn the principles of classical and operant conditioning, have them take out a sheet of paper. Ask them to read the question you are about to show them and write their own answer for 3-5 minutes without talking with any of their classmates. Show them the question “How could classical or operant conditioning explain racist behavior?” and let them write. Discuss with the class how they could make this response extinct. They should come up with the idea that you would need to present the CS without the UCS, which means they should expose themselves to members of another ethnicity and their culture to rid themselves of racist conditioning. This can lead to a discussion of the importance of multi-cultural education, and how this same model can apply to sexism, heterosexism, classism, ageism, etc.

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