Presentation on theme: "AP European Chapter 24 Angelica Youwakim, Jimmy Myers, Jamie Collo, Mike Dominguez, & Ashley Hunter."— Presentation transcript:
1 AP European Chapter 24Angelica Youwakim, Jimmy Myers, Jamie Collo, Mike Dominguez, & Ashley Hunter
2 The New Reading PublicMass reading public came into existence=people became literateGovernment began to finance education (1860s)Hungary- 1868Britain- 1870Switzerland- 1874Italy- 1877France-1878 to 1881Prussia- 1871
3 By 1900 Britain, France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, and Scandinavia 85 percent or more people could readItaly, Spain, Russia, Austria-Hungary, and Balkans had illiteracy rates between percentSchool teaching profession grew rapidlyMajor area for women employmentBy World War I more attention was given to secondary educationReading material for the mass audience became availableMail order catalogs and libraries grewA. Le petit Journal (of Paris)B. Daily MailDaily Express (London)
4 Science at Midcentury Comte, Positivism, and the Prestige of Science 1. Auguste Comte-French philosopherDeveloped positivismPositivism- a philosophy of human intellectual development that culminated in scienceThe Positive Philosophy ( )3 stages of human thoughtTheological stageMetaphysical stagePositive stageWorked to gain government support of scientific research and to include science in the schools and universitiesGermany-Earnst HeckelBritain-Thomas Henry Huxley
5 Darwin’s Theory Charles Darwin (1809-1882) On the Origin of Species (1859)Carried the mechanical interpretation of physical nature into the world of living thingsNatural Selection-the principle of survival of the fittestThe Descent of Man (1871)-Darwin applied the principle of evolution by natural selection to human beingsBoth books are very controversial because it went against the churchScience and EthicsPhilosophers applied the concept of the struggle for survival to human social relationshipsSocial Darwinism- Evolutionary ethicsThomas Huxley- the great defender of Darwin
6 Christianity and the Church Under Siege Many European intellectuals left the faithThe secular, liberal nation-states attacked the influence of the churchA. Intellectual Skepticism1.HistoryA. The Life of Jesus- By david Friedrich Strauss; he questioned whether the Bible provides any genuine historical evidence about JesusJulius Wellhausen, in Germany; Erst Renan in France and William Robert Smith in Great Britain contended that human authors had revised the books of the Bible with problems with Jewish society and politics in mind
7 2. ScienceA.Undermined ChristianityB. William Paley’s- “Natural Theology”C. Geology of Charles Lyell Suggested earth is much older than the Biblical records contendD. proposed religious sentiments are another set of natural phenomena3. MoralityA. questioned morality of the New Testament GodB. Friedrich Niezsche- portrayed Christianity as a religion glorifying weakness rather then the strength life requiredC. Christianity lost much of its intellectual respectabilityB. Conflict between Church and State ( primary conflict was over education)1. Great BritainA. a rivalry between the Anglican church and the state; and between Anglican Church and nonconformist denominationsB. Education Act of Provided state support for both religious and non religious schools but imposed some standards on both
8 3. Germany and the Kulturkampf 2. FranceA. Conservative French Catholic Church and 3rd republic hated each otherB. Jules Ferry sponsored a series of educational laws set forth; number of public schools expanded and members of religious orders could no longer teach themC Napoleonic concordat was terminated and church and state separated3. Germany and the KulturkampfA. German Catholic hierarchy wanted freedom for the churches guaranteed in the constitutionB. Bismarck set education under state controlC. “May Laws” of 1873 required priests to be educated in German schools and pass examsD. Legislation abolished power of the pope and by 1876 Bismarck had arrested and expelled all Catholic priests from PrussiaE. In the end Bismarck’s “KulturKampf” against the Catholic Church failed
9 Continued Section: Christianity and the church under siege Areas of Religious revivalThe German Catholic resistance to the intrusions of the secular state shows the catholic faith is very much alive in this period of intellectual and political hardship for the churchThe Anglican Church and other religions of Great Britain expanded and raised vast sums for new churches and schoolsIreland Saw a catholic devotional revival in the 1870sPriests in France organized a pilgrimage for the repentance of sin; they saw France’s defeat to Prussia as a punishment for their sins.The last ½ of the 19th century witnessed the final push to Christianize Europe; it failed only because the population had outstripped the resources of the churchesThe vitality of the church accounts for the intense hostility to their enemies
10 The Roman Catholic Church and the Modern World Most striking feature of the Christian religious revival was the resilience of the papacyThe hope for a liberal pope ended when Pope Pius IX fled the turmoil in Rome During November 1848Launched a counter offensive against liberalism; this was caused by the Italian unification.Pius IX issued the syllabus of ErrorsIssued in 1864Set the Catholic Church against contemporary science, Philosophy, and PoliticsThe Pope Summoned the First Vatican council in 1869The council promulgated the dogma of papal infallibility when speaking officially on matters of faith and moralsNo other pope has done soThe First Vatican Council ended in 1870 with the Italian Troopsoccupying Rome at the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War.Territory now only Vatican CityPapacy made no formal accommodation to the Italian state until 1929The Spiritual authority replaced the political authority of the papacyPope Leo XIII sought to make accommodations to the modern ageMost Important pronouncement was the Rerum NovarumDefended private property, religious education, and religious control on marriage lawsCondemned Socialism and Marxism, but believed in fair treatment of workersCathollic Trade unions sprung up all over EuropePius X sought to end modern thought and revert to traditional devotional life.Between , he condemned Catholic modernism, and in 1910 required all priest take anti-modernist oathsThe struggle between church and modern thought resumed.
11 Islam and Late 19th Century European thought European thinkers felt that Islamic culture made it impossible for modernizationMuslims felt the opposite; they could modernize as good if not better than EuropeansChristian Missionaries failed at converting Muslims traditionally, so they established Hospitals and schools to convert MuslimsWhile this did not convert many Muslims, It did enlighten some; They produced some of the leaders of the Middle EastAreas under the Ottoman Empire were exposed to and were open to modern ideas; while other areas that were farthest from European influence were filled with religious opposition toward modern ideas.