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AP European Chapter 24 Angelica Youwakim, Jimmy Myers, Jamie Collo, Mike Dominguez, & Ashley Hunter.

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Presentation on theme: "AP European Chapter 24 Angelica Youwakim, Jimmy Myers, Jamie Collo, Mike Dominguez, & Ashley Hunter."— Presentation transcript:

1 AP European Chapter 24 Angelica Youwakim, Jimmy Myers, Jamie Collo, Mike Dominguez, & Ashley Hunter

2 The New Reading Public Mass reading public came into existence=people became literate Government began to finance education (1860s) Hungary- 1868 Britain- 1870 Switzerland- 1874 Italy- 1877 France-1878 to 1881 Prussia- 1871

3 By 1900 Britain, France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, and Scandinavia 85 percent or more people could read Italy, Spain, Russia, Austria-Hungary, and Balkans had illiteracy rates between percent School teaching profession grew rapidly Major area for women employment By World War I more attention was given to secondary education Reading material for the mass audience became available Mail order catalogs and libraries grew A. Le petit Journal (of Paris) B. Daily Mail Daily Express (London)

4 Science at Midcentury Comte, Positivism, and the Prestige of Science
1. Auguste Comte-French philosopher Developed positivism Positivism- a philosophy of human intellectual development that culminated in science The Positive Philosophy ( ) 3 stages of human thought Theological stage Metaphysical stage Positive stage Worked to gain government support of scientific research and to include science in the schools and universities Germany-Earnst Heckel Britain-Thomas Henry Huxley

5 Darwin’s Theory Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
On the Origin of Species (1859) Carried the mechanical interpretation of physical nature into the world of living things Natural Selection-the principle of survival of the fittest The Descent of Man (1871)-Darwin applied the principle of evolution by natural selection to human beings Both books are very controversial because it went against the church Science and Ethics Philosophers applied the concept of the struggle for survival to human social relationships Social Darwinism- Evolutionary ethics Thomas Huxley- the great defender of Darwin

6 Christianity and the Church Under Siege
Many European intellectuals left the faith The secular, liberal nation-states attacked the influence of the church A. Intellectual Skepticism 1.History A. The Life of Jesus- By david Friedrich Strauss; he questioned whether the Bible provides any genuine historical evidence about Jesus Julius Wellhausen, in Germany; Erst Renan in France and William Robert Smith in Great Britain contended that human authors had revised the books of the Bible with problems with Jewish society and politics in mind

7 2. Science A.Undermined Christianity B. William Paley’s- “Natural Theology” C. Geology of Charles Lyell Suggested earth is much older than the Biblical records contend D. proposed religious sentiments are another set of natural phenomena 3. Morality A. questioned morality of the New Testament God B. Friedrich Niezsche- portrayed Christianity as a religion glorifying weakness rather then the strength life required C. Christianity lost much of its intellectual respectability B. Conflict between Church and State ( primary conflict was over education) 1. Great Britain A. a rivalry between the Anglican church and the state; and between Anglican Church and nonconformist denominations B. Education Act of Provided state support for both religious and non religious schools but imposed some standards on both

8 3. Germany and the Kulturkampf
2. France A. Conservative French Catholic Church and 3rd republic hated each other B. Jules Ferry sponsored a series of educational laws set forth; number of public schools expanded and members of religious orders could no longer teach them C Napoleonic concordat was terminated and church and state separated 3. Germany and the Kulturkampf A. German Catholic hierarchy wanted freedom for the churches guaranteed in the constitution B. Bismarck set education under state control C. “May Laws” of 1873 required priests to be educated in German schools and pass exams D. Legislation abolished power of the pope and by 1876 Bismarck had arrested and expelled all Catholic priests from Prussia E. In the end Bismarck’s “KulturKampf” against the Catholic Church failed

9 Continued Section: Christianity and the church under siege
Areas of Religious revival The German Catholic resistance to the intrusions of the secular state shows the catholic faith is very much alive in this period of intellectual and political hardship for the church The Anglican Church and other religions of Great Britain expanded and raised vast sums for new churches and schools Ireland Saw a catholic devotional revival in the 1870s Priests in France organized a pilgrimage for the repentance of sin; they saw France’s defeat to Prussia as a punishment for their sins. The last ½ of the 19th century witnessed the final push to Christianize Europe; it failed only because the population had outstripped the resources of the churches The vitality of the church accounts for the intense hostility to their enemies

10 The Roman Catholic Church and the Modern World
Most striking feature of the Christian religious revival was the resilience of the papacy The hope for a liberal pope ended when Pope Pius IX fled the turmoil in Rome During November 1848 Launched a counter offensive against liberalism; this was caused by the Italian unification. Pius IX issued the syllabus of Errors Issued in 1864 Set the Catholic Church against contemporary science, Philosophy, and Politics The Pope Summoned the First Vatican council in 1869 The council promulgated the dogma of papal infallibility when speaking officially on matters of faith and morals No other pope has done so The First Vatican Council ended in 1870 with the Italian Troops occupying Rome at the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War. Territory now only Vatican City Papacy made no formal accommodation to the Italian state until 1929 The Spiritual authority replaced the political authority of the papacy Pope Leo XIII sought to make accommodations to the modern age Most Important pronouncement was the Rerum Novarum Defended private property, religious education, and religious control on marriage laws Condemned Socialism and Marxism, but believed in fair treatment of workers Cathollic Trade unions sprung up all over Europe Pius X sought to end modern thought and revert to traditional devotional life. Between , he condemned Catholic modernism, and in 1910 required all priest take anti-modernist oaths The struggle between church and modern thought resumed.

11 Islam and Late 19th Century European thought
European thinkers felt that Islamic culture made it impossible for modernization Muslims felt the opposite; they could modernize as good if not better than Europeans Christian Missionaries failed at converting Muslims traditionally, so they established Hospitals and schools to convert Muslims While this did not convert many Muslims, It did enlighten some; They produced some of the leaders of the Middle East Areas under the Ottoman Empire were exposed to and were open to modern ideas; while other areas that were farthest from European influence were filled with religious opposition toward modern ideas.

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