2 Chapter 1: Before History AP World History - ReviewChanges to AP ExamsStarting in 2012, the M/C multiple choice questions will have 4 answer choices, not fiveReference for latest updates.Demographics1. Sophomores 70%2. Seniors3. Juniors 4. FreshmenExpectationsApproximately half of test-takers pass the exam.Scoring college credits requires a score of 3, 4, or 5Serious organization & preparation is essential !!!
3 Chapter 1: Before History AP World History - ReviewWhat to expectThe exam is in 2 parts: - Multiple Choice (70 Questions) 55 minutes [48 seconds per question] - Free Response (3 Essays) 130 minutes > Document-Based Question (DBQ) > Continuity & Change Over Time (CCOT) > Compare & Contrast (C & C)AssessmentThe essays are ranked from 0 to 9Multiple Choice = 50%The essays are combined to make 50% of your gradeEssays are thoroughly read by 1 of 900 AP World History essay readers.Work is completed within 1 week.
4 Chapter 1: Before History AP World History - ReviewYour ScoreA formula is applied to rank your combined score (M/C & Essays). Rank from = No recommendation 4 = Well Qualified 2 = Possible Qualified 5 = Extremely Qualified 3 = Qualified77 of 120 points scores a 5 !!! 11 %64 to 76 = %48 to 63 = %SuggestionsDon’t stress the details…it’s all about the big picture !95% of AP World exam covers 600 BCE to presentDon’t wait till the last minute – create a schedule or routine and stick to it !!!40 % of test-takers don’t answer the last exam question !!!For essays….never forget to consider cause & effect !!!Getting Started…
5 Chapter 1: Before History AP World History - ReviewRemember PeriodizationUnit 1: 8,000 to 600 BCEUnit 2: 600 BCE to 600 CEUnit 3: 600 – 1450Unit 4: 1450 – 1700Unit 5: – 1900Unit 6: PresentRemember Geographical RegionsThe AmericasEuropeAsia (N S E& W) - Middle East referred to as SW Asia India is referred to as South AsiaOceaniaAfrica - Sub-Sahara (South of Sahara), also referred to as North Africa
6 AP World History - Review Unit 1: FoundationsThe period between 8,000 BCE and 600 CE (Unit 1 & 2) is often referred to as the “Foundations” period”ClimateClimate has been a major factor in determining where people settled. Peopled settled in areas that had optimal climates that would accommodate agriculture and livestock.Time Periods• The Paleolithic Age refers to about 12,000 BC. During this time people were nomadic.• The Neolithic Age refers to the age from about 12,000 BC to about 8000 BC. It is during this time that people settled in communities and civilization began to emerge.• River Valley Civilizations refers to about 3500 to 1500 BC. The major River Valleys are described below.• Classical Civilizations refers to about 1000 BC to 600 CE. The major civilizations to emerge were Zhou and Han China, Greece and Rome, and the Gupta Empire.
7 AP World History - Review The River-Valley Civilizations - Mesopotamia - Egypt - Indus Valley - Shang China - Meso and South AmericaEach early civilization developed its own unique ways of life, but they all shared some common characteristics• Complex irrigation systems• legal codes• money• art and written literature• More formal scientific knowledge, numbering systems, and calendars• Intensification of social inequalityComparisons of Early River Valley Civilizations• Handout ‘A’ provided
8 AP World History - Review Classical Civilizations - Greece - Rome - China - IndiaEach classical civilization developed their own beliefs, lifestyles, political institutions, and social structures. However, there were common similarities among them:• Patriarchal family structures - Like the river valley civilizations that preceded them, the classical civilization valued male authority within families, as well as in most other areas of life.• Agricultural-based economies - Despite more sophisticated and complex job specialization, the most common occupation in all areas was farming.• Complex governments - Because they were so large, these three civilizations had to invent new ways to keep their lands together politically. Their governments were large and complex, although they each had unique ways of governing.• Expanding trade base - Their economic systems were complex. Although they generally operated independently, trade routes connected them by both land and sea.Comparisons of Classical Civilizations• Handout ‘B’ provided
9 AP World History - Review Fall of Civilizations - Recall that all of the river-valley civilization areas experienced significant decline and/or conquest in the time period around 1200 BCE. A similar thing happened to the classical civilizations between about 200 and 600 CE, and because the empires were larger and more connected, their fall had an even more significant impact on the course of world history. - Han China was the first to fall (around 220 CE), then the Western Roman Empire (476 CE), and finally the Gupta in 550 CE.Similarities Several common factors caused all three empires to fall Attacks from the Huns - The Huns were a nomadic people of Asia that began to migrate south and west during this time period. Their migration was probably caused by drought and lack of pasture, and the invention and use of the stirrup facilitated their attacks on all three established civilizations.Protection/maintenance of borders - All empires found that their borders had grown so large that their military had trouble guarding them. A primary example is the failure of the Great Wall to keep the Huns out of China. The Huns generally just went around it.Deterioration of political institutions - All three empires were riddled by political corruption during their latter days, and all three suffered under weak-willed rulers. Moral decay also characterized the years prior to their respective falls.
10 AP World History - Review Similarities continued…Diseases that followed the trade routes - Plagues and epidemics may have killed off as much as half of the population of each empire.Differences Even though the empires shared common reasons for their declines, some significant differences also may be seen.The Gupta's dependence on alliances with regional princes broke down, exhibiting the tendency toward political fragmentation on the Indian subcontinent. - the fall of the Gupta probably had least impact. Hinduism and the Caste system (the glue that held it together) continued after the fallThe fall of the Han Dynasty was more of a problem. - centralized govt. replaced by social disorder, however - Confucian traditions continuedRome's empire lasted much longer than did either of the other two, but was more devastating. - government and military lost control - religious divisions did nothing to unite the empire - the Roman Empire split in two for good, and the eastern half endured for another years after the west fell.
11 AP World History - Review Consequences The fall of the three empires had some important consequences that represent major turning points in world history:Trade was disrupted, but survived ! Trend toward long-distance trade continued…in fact, it increased as conflict affected land routes.Importance of religion increased…as political authority decreased ! - In the west, religion (particularly Christianity) was left to slowly develop authority in people’s lives - In China, Buddhism quickly spread, competing with Confucian traditions.Political disunity in the Middle East forged the way for the emergence of a new religion… Islam entered the world stage.
12 AP World History - Review Compare causes for collapse including role of nomads)Han Dynasty 300 BCE-300CE Cause - Expansion beyond military control, especially pressure from Xiung Nu nomadic groups Result - disunity, rise of Buddhism, continuation of Confucian bureaucratic model; Sui and then Tang dynastyRoman Empire 100 BCE-471CE Cause - Imperial expansion beyond military control, especially military pressure of Hun nomadic groups Result - rise of Christianity, creation of the Byzantine empire, feudalism in Latin West; rise of Arab Caliphate
13 AP World History - Review Major MigrationsPhoenicians – - By about 2000 BCE this small group of seafaring people from a coastal area of the eastern Mediterranean Sea had set up colonies in North Africa and southern Europe. - Pressured by both lack of space in their homeland and desire for prosperity from trade, the - Traveled widely over the entire Mediterranean area. - To facilitate their trading, they simplified the cuneiform system, producing an alphabet with characters that was far easier to learn and use. Their alphabet became the basis for alphabets in Greece, Rome, and eventually for many modern languages.
14 AP World History - Review Major MigrationsIsraelites – - Originated about 2000 BCE- Abraham and his family migrated to the eastern Mediterranean, where they settled in Canaan. - The Jews were distinctly different because they were monotheistic, believing in only one god. - They later migrated to Egypt to escape a spreading drought. There they became slaves, and under their leader Moses, they returned to Canaan where they eventually formed the kingdom of Israel. - The Jewish religion did not actively encourage conversion of non-Jews. Jewish beliefs and traditional stories were written down and later became basic to Christianity and Islam. The religion stressed the importance of prayer, worship, and good behavior. Tenets have become characteristic of many other monotheistic religions.
15 AP World History - Review Major MigrationsAryans – - Herding peoples originated in the Caucasus area, but they began migrating in many directions about the mid 2nd millennium BCE. - Waves of Aryan migrants invaded the Indian subcontinent, decimating the cities of the Indus Valley. The Aryans remained a nomadic people for many years, but eventually pushed eastward, settling in the fertile Ganges River area as agriculturalists. - The Aryans imposed their caste system on the natives, a complex social structure with strict social status differences and virtually no social mobility. Their stories also became the basis for Hinduism.
16 AP World History - Review Major MigrationsHuns – s C.E.; originated in the Gobi Desert (China) and moved to what we now call Hungary; - Pushed the natives out and the natives (Goths) started to move into Roman Empire. Attila the Hun invaded Gaul (France) in 451, but they were pushed back. They then invaded Rome in 453, but Attila died and the Hun Empire quickly collapsed.
17 AP World History - Review Major MigrationsGermanic Peoples – - Found from the Black Sea to the Rhine. In 476, Odoacer, a Visigoth, officially became the leader of Rome.• Handout ‘C’ provided
19 D) The Middle East AP World History - Review Multiple Choice Practice Based on the preponderance of archaeological evidence, which region of the world saw the development of the earliest civilizations ?A) Northern Eurasia B) South America C) Indonesia D) The Middle East E) Sub-Sahara AfricaD) The Middle East
20 D) Huang He River AP World History - Review Multiple Choice Practice Which of the following early river civilizations developed in the greatest state of isolation from the others?A) Tigris River B) Euphrates River C) Indus River D) Huang he River E) Nile RiverD) Huang He River
21 B) They helped justify and preserve social inequality AP World History - ReviewMultiple Choice PracticeConfucianism, Hinduism, and Christianity had what in common?A) They directed attention to the afterlife B) They helped justify and preserve social inequality C) They urged the importance of political activity D) They stressed the value of warfare E) They incorporated a strong missionary driveB) They helped justify and preserve social inequality
22 B) River valley location AP World History - ReviewMultiple Choice PracticeWhich of the following did ancient Egyptian, Shang, and Sumerian civilizations all have in common?A) Pyramid-shaped monumental architecture B) River valley location C) Acceptance of Buddhism D) Pastoral based economy E) Intensive rice agricultureB) River valley location