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AP World History Review

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1 AP World History Review
Unit 1 & 2: Foundations

2 Chapter 1: Before History
AP World History - Review Changes to AP Exams Starting in 2012, the M/C multiple choice questions will have 4 answer choices, not five Reference for latest updates. Demographics 1. Sophomores 70% 2. Seniors 3. Juniors 4. Freshmen Expectations Approximately half of test-takers pass the exam. Scoring college credits requires a score of 3, 4, or 5 Serious organization & preparation is essential !!!

3 Chapter 1: Before History
AP World History - Review What to expect The exam is in 2 parts: - Multiple Choice (70 Questions) 55 minutes [48 seconds per question] - Free Response (3 Essays) 130 minutes > Document-Based Question (DBQ) > Continuity & Change Over Time (CCOT) > Compare & Contrast (C & C) Assessment The essays are ranked from 0 to 9 Multiple Choice = 50% The essays are combined to make 50% of your grade Essays are thoroughly read by 1 of 900 AP World History essay readers. Work is completed within 1 week.

4 Chapter 1: Before History
AP World History - Review Your Score A formula is applied to rank your combined score (M/C & Essays). Rank from = No recommendation 4 = Well Qualified 2 = Possible Qualified 5 = Extremely Qualified 3 = Qualified 77 of 120 points scores a 5 !!! 11 % 64 to 76 = % 48 to 63 = % Suggestions Don’t stress the details…it’s all about the big picture ! 95% of AP World exam covers 600 BCE to present Don’t wait till the last minute – create a schedule or routine and stick to it !!! 40 % of test-takers don’t answer the last exam question !!! For essays….never forget to consider cause & effect !!! Getting Started…

5 Chapter 1: Before History
AP World History - Review Remember Periodization Unit 1: 8,000 to 600 BCE Unit 2: 600 BCE to 600 CE Unit 3: 600 – 1450 Unit 4: 1450 – 1700 Unit 5: – 1900 Unit 6: Present Remember Geographical Regions The Americas Europe Asia (N S E& W) - Middle East referred to as SW Asia India is referred to as South Asia Oceania Africa - Sub-Sahara (South of Sahara), also referred to as North Africa

6 AP World History - Review
Unit 1: Foundations The period between 8,000 BCE and 600 CE (Unit 1 & 2) is often referred to as the “Foundations” period” Climate Climate has been a major factor in determining where people settled. Peopled settled in areas that had optimal climates that would accommodate agriculture and livestock. Time Periods • The Paleolithic Age refers to about 12,000 BC. During this time people were nomadic. • The Neolithic Age refers to the age from about 12,000 BC to about 8000 BC. It is during this time that people settled in communities and civilization began to emerge. • River Valley Civilizations refers to about 3500 to 1500 BC. The major River Valleys are described below. • Classical Civilizations refers to about 1000 BC to 600 CE. The major civilizations to emerge were Zhou and Han China, Greece and Rome, and the Gupta Empire.

7 AP World History - Review
The River-Valley Civilizations - Mesopotamia - Egypt - Indus Valley - Shang China - Meso and South America Each early civilization developed its own unique ways of life, but they all shared some common characteristics • Complex irrigation systems • legal codes • money • art and written literature • More formal scientific knowledge, numbering systems, and calendars • Intensification of social inequality Comparisons of Early River Valley Civilizations • Handout ‘A’ provided

8 AP World History - Review
Classical Civilizations - Greece - Rome - China - India Each classical civilization developed their own beliefs, lifestyles, political institutions, and social structures. However, there were common similarities among them: • Patriarchal family structures - Like the river valley civilizations that preceded them, the classical civilization valued male authority within families, as well as in most other areas of life. • Agricultural-based economies - Despite more sophisticated and complex job specialization, the most common occupation in all areas was farming. • Complex governments - Because they were so large, these three civilizations had to invent new ways to keep their lands together politically. Their governments were large and complex, although they each had unique ways of governing. • Expanding trade base - Their economic systems were complex. Although they generally operated independently, trade routes connected them by both land and sea. Comparisons of Classical Civilizations • Handout ‘B’ provided

9 AP World History - Review
Fall of Civilizations - Recall that all of the river-valley civilization areas experienced significant decline and/or conquest in the time period around 1200 BCE. A similar thing happened to the classical civilizations between about 200 and 600 CE, and because the empires were larger and more connected, their fall had an even more significant impact on the course of world history. - Han China was the first to fall (around 220 CE), then the Western Roman Empire (476 CE), and finally the Gupta in 550 CE. Similarities Several common factors caused all three empires to fall  Attacks from the Huns - The Huns were a nomadic people of Asia that began to migrate south and west during this time period. Their migration was probably caused by drought and lack of pasture, and the invention and use of the stirrup facilitated their attacks on all three established civilizations. Protection/maintenance of borders - All empires found that their borders had grown so large that their military had trouble guarding them. A primary example is the failure of the Great Wall to keep the Huns out of China. The Huns generally just went around it. Deterioration of political institutions - All three empires were riddled by political corruption during their latter days, and all three suffered under weak-willed rulers. Moral decay also characterized the years prior to their respective falls.

10 AP World History - Review
Similarities continued… Diseases that followed the trade routes - Plagues and epidemics may have killed off as much as half of the population of each empire. Differences Even though the empires shared common reasons for their declines, some significant differences also may be seen. The Gupta's dependence on alliances with regional princes broke down, exhibiting the tendency toward political fragmentation on the Indian subcontinent. - the fall of the Gupta probably had least impact. Hinduism and the Caste system (the glue that held it together) continued after the fall The fall of the Han Dynasty was more of a problem. - centralized govt. replaced by social disorder, however - Confucian traditions continued Rome's empire lasted much longer than did either of the other two, but was more devastating. - government and military lost control - religious divisions did nothing to unite the empire - the Roman Empire split in two for good, and the eastern half endured for another years after the west fell.

11 AP World History - Review
Consequences The fall of the three empires had some important consequences that represent major turning points in world history: Trade was disrupted, but survived ! Trend toward long-distance trade continued…in fact, it increased as conflict affected land routes. Importance of religion increased…as political authority decreased ! - In the west, religion (particularly Christianity) was left to slowly develop authority in people’s lives - In China, Buddhism quickly spread, competing with Confucian traditions. Political disunity in the Middle East forged the way for the emergence of a new religion… Islam entered the world stage.

12 AP World History - Review
Compare causes for collapse including role of nomads) Han Dynasty 300 BCE-300CE Cause - Expansion beyond military control, especially pressure from Xiung Nu nomadic groups Result - disunity, rise of Buddhism, continuation of Confucian bureaucratic model; Sui and then Tang dynasty Roman Empire 100 BCE-471CE Cause - Imperial expansion beyond military control, especially military pressure of Hun nomadic groups Result - rise of Christianity, creation of the Byzantine empire, feudalism in Latin West; rise of Arab Caliphate

13 AP World History - Review
Major Migrations Phoenicians – - By about 2000 BCE this small group of seafaring people from a coastal area of the eastern Mediterranean Sea had set up colonies in North Africa and southern Europe. - Pressured by both lack of space in their homeland and desire for prosperity from trade, the - Traveled widely over the entire Mediterranean area. - To facilitate their trading, they simplified the cuneiform system, producing an alphabet with characters that was far easier to learn and use. Their alphabet became the basis for alphabets in Greece, Rome, and eventually for many modern languages.

14 AP World History - Review
Major Migrations Israelites – - Originated about 2000 BCE - Abraham and his family migrated to the eastern Mediterranean, where they settled in Canaan. - The Jews were distinctly different because they were monotheistic, believing in only one god. - They later migrated to Egypt to escape a spreading drought. There they became slaves, and under their leader Moses, they returned to Canaan where they eventually formed the kingdom of Israel. - The Jewish religion did not actively encourage conversion of non-Jews. Jewish beliefs and traditional stories were written down and later became basic to Christianity and Islam. The religion stressed the importance of prayer, worship, and good behavior. Tenets have become characteristic of many other monotheistic religions.

15 AP World History - Review
Major Migrations Aryans – - Herding peoples originated in the Caucasus area, but they began migrating in many directions about the mid 2nd millennium BCE. - Waves of Aryan migrants invaded the Indian subcontinent, decimating the cities of the Indus Valley. The Aryans remained a nomadic people for many years, but eventually pushed eastward, settling in the fertile Ganges River area as agriculturalists. - The Aryans imposed their caste system on the natives, a complex social structure with strict social status differences and virtually no social mobility. Their stories also became the basis for Hinduism.

16 AP World History - Review
Major Migrations Huns – s C.E.; originated in the Gobi Desert (China) and moved to what we now call Hungary; - Pushed the natives out and the natives (Goths) started to move into Roman Empire. Attila the Hun invaded Gaul (France) in 451, but they were pushed back. They then invaded Rome in 453, but Attila died and the Hun Empire quickly collapsed.

17 AP World History - Review
Major Migrations Germanic Peoples – - Found from the Black Sea to the Rhine. In 476, Odoacer, a Visigoth, officially became the leader of Rome. • Handout ‘C’ provided

18 END

19 D) The Middle East AP World History - Review Multiple Choice Practice
Based on the preponderance of archaeological evidence, which region of the world saw the development of the earliest civilizations ? A) Northern Eurasia B) South America C) Indonesia D) The Middle East E) Sub-Sahara Africa D) The Middle East

20 D) Huang He River AP World History - Review Multiple Choice Practice
Which of the following early river civilizations developed in the greatest state of isolation from the others? A) Tigris River B) Euphrates River C) Indus River D) Huang he River E) Nile River D) Huang He River

21 B) They helped justify and preserve social inequality
AP World History - Review Multiple Choice Practice Confucianism, Hinduism, and Christianity had what in common? A) They directed attention to the afterlife B) They helped justify and preserve social inequality C) They urged the importance of political activity D) They stressed the value of warfare E) They incorporated a strong missionary drive B) They helped justify and preserve social inequality

22 B) River valley location
AP World History - Review Multiple Choice Practice Which of the following did ancient Egyptian, Shang, and Sumerian civilizations all have in common? A) Pyramid-shaped monumental architecture B) River valley location C) Acceptance of Buddhism D) Pastoral based economy E) Intensive rice agriculture B) River valley location

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