2 ACTIONS EXPRESSED BY PAST SIMPLE AND PRESENT PERFECT PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLEPAST SIMPLECompleted actions that took place in a finished period of time:Carol bought a new dress yesterday.A sequence of past actions:He got up at eight o´clock, got dressed and had breakfast before leaving for work.Unfinished actions:We´ve lived in Madrid for 2 years. (= we still live there)Actions that have a present consequence:I´ve cut my finger.Actions that took place at no specific time:Have you ever seen any of Pedro Almodovar´s films?
3 PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE TIME EXPRESSIONSPRESENT PERFECT SIMPLEPAST SIMPLECompleted and finished periods of time.yesterdaylast week/month/yeartwo weeks agoin 2005when I was a boywhen I met himPeriods of time that are not finished.todaytonightthis week/month/ yearthis morning/ afternoon / evening
4 Remember:“Go” has two “has gone”present perfect forms“has been”Peter has gone shopping.= He didn´t come back.Peter has been shopping.= He´s back now.
5 FOR AND SINCE WITH PRESENT PERFECT SINCE (preposition or conjunction)FOR(preposition)We use “for” with periods of time to stress the duration of an action that started in the past and continues in the present. We´ve had lessons for two months. I´ve been a teacher for 20 years.We use “since” to mark the start of an action that began in the past and continues in the present. It can be a preposition: I´ve been a teacher since or a conjunction, followed by a clause (subject and verb): I´ve been a teacher since I left university.
6 JUST“Just” is an adverb used with the present perfect to emphasize that the action expressed by the verb was completed very recently. I´ve just explained to you the difference between “for” and “since”. (some minutes ago) You´ve just read an example that shows the use of “just” with the present perfect simple. (30 seconds ago) “just” is placed before the past participle.
7 ALREADY“Already” is used with positive and interrogative sentences to refer to an unspecified time before now. Have you already done your homework? Fina has already sent me her description of a friend. Have you decided where to go already? “Already” can be placed just before the past participle or at the end of the sentence.
8 YET“Yet” is used in negative and interrogative sentences to stress the time before now. It´s the opposite of “already”. e.g. You haven´t studied the vocabulary yet. (before now) Has she come back from Dublin yet? “Yet” is placed at the end of the sentence.